Shock waves are often used in experiments to create a shear flow across liquid droplets to study secondary atomization. Similar behavior occurs inside of supersonic combustors (scramjets) under startup conditions, but it is challenging to study these conditions experimentally. In order to investigate this phenomenon further, a numerical approach is developed to simulate compressible multiphase flows under the effects of surface tension forces. The flow field is solved via the compressible multicomponent Euler equations (i.e., the five equation model) discretized with the finite volume method on a uniform Cartesian grid. The solver utilizes a total variation diminishing (TVD) third-order Runge-Kutta method for time-marching and second order TVD spatial reconstruction. Surface tension is incorporated using the Continuum Surface Force (CSF) model. Fluxes are upwinded with a modified Harten-Lax-van Leer Contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver. An interface compression scheme is employed to counter numerical diffusion of the interface. The present work includes modifications to both the HLLC solver and the interface compression scheme to account for capillary force terms and the associated pressure jump across the gas-liquid interface. A simple method for numerically computing the interface curvature is developed and an acoustic scaling of the surface tension coefficient is proposed for the non-dimensionalization of the model. The model captures the surface tension induced pressure jump exactly if the exact curvature is known and is further verified with an oscillating elliptical droplet and Mach 1.47 and 3 shock-droplet interaction problems. The general characteristics of secondary atomization at a range of Weber numbers are also captured in a series of simulations.
This work aims to study the interaction of a shock wave with a cloud of particles to quantify flow unsteadiness and velocity fluctuations using particle-resolved direct numerical simulation (PR-DNS). Three cases are studied, with each case revealing one aspect of the intricate flow phenomena involved in this interaction. The unsteady interaction of a shock wave with a transverse array of particles reveals the origin of unsteadiness under the effect of mutual wave-wave and wave-wake interactions between the particles. In the second case, the interaction of a shock with a particle cloud is studied, with a focus on the interaction of the complex wave system with the vortical structure. A budget analysis of the vorticity equation reveals the sources of strong unsteadiness in the particle cloud. A detailed analysis of the velocity fluctuation and kinetic energy in the fluctuating motion is performed to ascertain the importance of the velocity fluctuations that arise from the strong unsteadiness. An analogous analysis is presented, in the third case, for a gradually-induced flow on the same particle cloud along with a comparison to the shock induced case to assess the impulsive effect of shock on intensity of the fluctuating field statistics.
In this work, two-dimensional hot spots are modelled by combining a linear temperature gradient with a constant temperature plateau. This approach retains the simplicity of a linear temperature gradient, but captures the effects of a local temperature maximum of finite size. Symmetric and asymmetric plateau regions are modelled using both rectangular and elliptical geometries. A one-step Arrhenius reaction for H 2 -air is used to model the reactive mixture. Plateaus with different ratios of excitation to acoustic timescales, spanning two orders of magnitude, are simulated. Even with clear differences in behaviour between one and two dimensions, the a priori prescribed hot spot timescale ratio is shown to characterise the 2-D gasdynamic response. The relationship between one and two dimensions is explored using asymmetric plateau regions. It is shown that 1-D behaviour is recovered over a finite time. Furthermore, the duration of this 1-D behaviour is directly related to the asymmetry of the plateau.
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