This systematic review has sought to identify the multidisciplinary scientific production, addressing factors for proper diabetes mellitus management focusing on health education, from the perspective of the patient and the professional. The goal was to synthesize the knowledge produced and point out its implications for the practice of patient care. A search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, SCOPUS, LILACS and BIREME. The intervention programs present methodologies and different structures, although the theoretical basis is education for self-management. The evaluation methodologies for effectiveness of educational programs focused on the number of subscriptions and stay in groups. Some studies also evaluated psychological, social and pathophysiological parameters. The results show qualitative improvements in self-care, humanization in care, and quality of life of patients. The evidence shows that there seems to be a positive response to the intervention programs whenever comparing the physiological, psychological, educational and social parameters, initial and final of the studies.
Objective:To assess the acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents.Methods:Controlled, randomized study with crossover design. Twenty pubertal individuals underwent two 30-minute sessions: (1) aerobic exercise session performed between 65% and 75% of heart rate reserve, divided into 5 min of warm-up, 20 min at the target intensity and 5 min of cool down; and (2) control session watching a cartoon. Before and after the sessions, the computerized Stroop test-Testinpacs™ was applied to evaluate the inhibitory control. Reaction time (ms) and errors (n) were recorded.Results:The control session reaction time showed no significant difference. On the other hand, the reaction time of the exercise session decreased after the intervention (p<0.001). The number of errors made at the exercise session were lower than in the control session (p=0.011). Additionally, there was a positive association between reaction time (Δ) of the exercise session and age (r 2=0.404, p=0.003).Conclusions:Vigorous aerobic exercise seems to promote acute improvement in the inhibitory control in adolescents. The effect of exercise on the inhibitory control performance was associated with age, showing that it was reduced at older age ranges.
BackgroundThe prevalence of obesity is increasing in the population, particularly in women. Obesity has an impact on the musculoskeletal system, leading to knee and ankle overexertion, difficulty with balance, and functional disability. The aim of this study was to identify changes in kinematic parameters of gait in obese young women.MethodsA case-control study with 24 obese women (mean age 35.20 ± 9.9 years and mean body mass index of 31.85 ± 2.94 kg/m2) and 24 eutrophic women (mean age of 36.33 ± 11.14 and mean body mass index of 21.82 ± 1.58 kg/m2). The gait of women was evaluated by the system Vicon Motus® 9.2. The linear parameters of speed, cadence, right and left step, and stride lengths were studied, as well as the angular parameters of knee and ankle.ResultsThere was a decrease in linear gait parameters (P < 0.001), speed, cadence, right and left step, and stride lengths. In regard to the angular parameters of the knee and ankle, there were also differences between the analyses (P < 0.001). At the knee joint, obese women have delayed onset of the second wave of flexion, exacerbating such movement in order to compensate. In regard to the ankle, both groups showed curves of normal plantar flexion and dorsiflexion, but there was a delay in the path graph in the ankle of obese women indicating a reduced range of motion and possible over-exertion of the pretibial muscles and soleus muscles simultaneously.ConclusionThe results of this study revealed that obesity is a factor that negatively influences the kinematic parameters of gait of young women.
PurposeTo describe the behavior of the postural control in children with profound sensorineural hearing loss and compare the results of experimental tests with hearing children aged 7 to 10 years.Patients and methodsThis is a cross-sectional study where 100 children were divided into experimental and control groups. We used a force platform, AccuSway Plus, where the tests were conducted under the experimental conditions: open base, eyes open (OBEO); open base, eyes closed (OBEC); closed base, eyes open (CBEO); closed base, eyes closed (CBEC). The body sway velocity (V) of the center of pressure, the displacement in the anteroposterior direction (COPap) and mediolateral (COPml) of the center of pressure were the parameters to evaluate the postural control. For statistical analysis we used the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test, with a significance level of 5%.ResultsIn comparisons of variables between the groups, the experimental group outperformed by at least 75% of the control group values. In terms of global trends, the experimental group shows higher values of body oscillations in all experimental conditions and variables evaluated. Children with hearing loss had poorer balance performance compared to the group of hearing. The inferential analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in the balance between deaf and hearing children in the OBEC experimental condition in relation to the COPml parameter (P = 0.04). There were no statistically significant differences in comparisons between the sexes when the groups were analyzed separately. The prevalence of unknown etiology showed 58% of cases and congenital rubella in 16%. The discovery of deafness occurred in 70% of children before the age of 3 years.ConclusionIn this study, children with hearing loss had poorer balance performance compared to the group of hearing children. This finding confirms the need to investigate postural control through longitudinal studies to identify the area of sensory deficit causing poor balance performance and promote more specific early interventions.
Introduction: Down syndrome (DS) of all genetic syndromes is the most common. In Hippotherapy, three-dimensional movements, provided by horse walking, awaken in the body of children with DS a large amount of sensory and neuromuscular stimuli, which directly interfere with overall development and the acquisition of motor skills. Objective: To analyze the effects of an Hippotherapy program on global motor coordination variables in individuals with DS of both genders and to compare individuals with the same syndrome who do not practice Hippotherapy. Methods: 41 individuals participated in the study, 20 of them practicing Hippotherapy (EG) and 21 who did not practice Hippotherapy (CG). The Körperkoordinations test für Kinder (KTK) test was used, consisting of four tasks: Balance on beams, Single-lever jump, Side-jump and Transfer on platform for analysis of motor coordination for individuals. Results: Comparing the groups, a significant difference (p < 0.01) was observed for the Lateral Leap Motor Quotient, the EG presented a better score (114.10) than the CG (88.47), and also in the Total Motor Ratio (EG = 115.10, GC = 102.47). The individuals that practice Hippotherapy presented better results in the global motor coordination, with significant difference (p < 0.05). In EG, 5% had high global motor coordination, 40% good and 55% normal, whereas in CG only 10% had good global motor coordination and 90% normal global motor coordination. Conclusion: It can be emphasized that equine therapy presents benefits of improvement in global motor coordination. Specifically in tasks such as the balance beam, single jump and side jump, besides global motor coordination.
Vigorous aerobic exercise seems to promote acute improvement in the inhibitory control in adolescents. The effect of exercise on the inhibitory control performance was associated with age, showing that it was reduced at older age ranges.
Resumo: O objetivo desse relato de experiência foi descrever aspectos técnicos e táticos do Rugby em Cadeira de Rodas e oferecer indicações de como trabalhá-los para um melhor rendimento do time. Utilizando o método de pesquisa observacional, coletamos informações de times nacionais e internacionais no período de setembro/2008 a dezembro/2009. A observação incluiu treinamentos e competições nacionais e internacionais. Nos resultados apresentamos três elementos técnicos: passe, recepção e domínio de bola. Ainda, jogadas de defesa e ataque, usadas nos âmbitos nacional e internacional são descritas. Concluímos que há um domínio de técnicas e táticas na equipe nacional, mas que a experiência de jogo, a falta de comunicação em quadra e o desconhecimento das regras são elementos que prejudicam o rendimento do time. Esperamos que este estudo auxilie pesquisadores e técnicos a dar continuidade à pesquisa e às ações em quadra, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento da modalidade no Brasil. Palavras-chave: Rugby. Adaptação. Esporte. Traumatismo da medula espinhal. Tetraplegia. The Wheelchair Rugby: technical and tactical aspects and a guideline for developmentAbstract: The aim of this case report was to describe tactical and technical aspects of Wheelchair Rugby and shows directions of how work them to achieve the better results for the team. The observational research methodology was used. Data collection was made from national and international teams between September/2008 to December/2009. The observations included training sessions and competition of nationals and international teams. In results we presented four technical elements: pass, reception, dislocation at the court and ball control. National and international defensives and offensives plays are also described. We conclude that the national teams have domain about technical and tactical skills however, the lack of game experience, lack of communication inside the court, and lack of knowledge about the rules are the weaker points that compromise team performance. We hope that this work helps researchers and coaches to continue the study and the actions in the court, contributing to the development of the modality in Brazil.
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