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Concurrent sound associated with very bright meteors manifests as popping, hissing, and faint rustling sounds occurring simultaneously with the arrival of light from meteors. Numerous instances have been documented with −11 to −13 brightness. These sounds cannot be attributed to direct acoustic propagation from the upper atmosphere for which travel time would be several minutes. Concurrent sounds must be associated with some form of electromagnetic energy generated by the meteor, propagated to the vicinity of the observer, and transduced into acoustic waves. Previously, energy propagated from meteors was assumed to be RF emissions. This has not been well validated experimentally. Herein we describe experimental results and numerical models in support of photoacoustic coupling as the mechanism. Recent photometric measurements of fireballs reveal strong millisecond flares and significant brightness oscillations at frequencies ≥40 Hz. Strongly modulated light at these frequencies with sufficient intensity can create concurrent sounds through radiative heating of common dielectric materials like hair, clothing, and leaves. This heating produces small pressure oscillations in the air contacting the absorbers. Calculations show that −12 brightness meteors can generate audible sound at ~25 dB SPL. The photoacoustic hypothesis provides an alternative explanation for this longstanding mystery about generation of concurrent sounds by fireballs.Concurrent sound associated with very bright meteors manifests itself as popping, hissing, and faint rustling sounds occurring simultaneously with the arrival of the light from the meteor [1][2][3][4][5][6][7] . Concurrent sound occasionally is generated by fireballs 8 with apparent magnitude (visual brightness) as low 8,9 as −9, and numerous occurrences have been documented 1,2 with apparent magnitudes of − 11 to − 13. These sounds cannot be attributed to direct acoustic propagation from the upper atmosphere for which the travel time would be several minutes. Concurrent sounds must be associated with some form of electromagnetic energy generated by the meteor, propagated to the vicinity of the observer, and transduced into acoustic waves. Prior to now, the means by which energy from meteors could be propagated to Earth and then converted into audible sound has not been adequately explained and validated by experiment. Here we present observational data, experimental results, and numerical models in support of photoacoustic coupling as the mechanism. Recent photometric measurements of fireballs reveal strong millisecond flares and significant brightness oscillations at frequencies of 40 Hz and higher 7,8 . Experiments and models show that strongly modulated light at these frequencies and light intensity on Earth from − 12 apparent magnitude meteors (same as full moon illumination ~10 −3 W/m 2 ) can radiatively heat common dielectric materials like hair, cloth, paint, etc. This heating can produce small pressure oscillations in the air adjacent to the absorber. These can be loud enou...

The discrete ordinates method is a popular and versatile technique for solving the radiative transport equation, a major drawback of which is the presence of ray effects. Mitigation of ray effects can yield significantly more accurate results and enhanced numerical stability for combined mode codes. When ray effects are present, the solution is seen to be highly dependent upon the relative orientation of the geometry and the global reference frame. This is an undesirable property. A novel ray effect mitigation technique of averaging the computed solution for various reference frame orientations is proposed.

Radiation heat transfer is an important phenomenon in many physical systems of practical interest. When participating media is important, the radiative transfer equation (RTE) must be solved for the radiative intensity as a function of location, time, direction, and wavelength. In many heat transfer applications, a quasi-steady assumption is valid. The dependence on wavelength is often treated through a weighted sum of gray gases type approach. The discrete ordinates method is the most common method for approximating the angular dependence. In the discrete ordinates method, the intensity is solved exactly for a finite number of discrete directions, and integrals over the angular space are accomplished through a quadrature rule. In this work, a projection-based model reduction approach is applied to the discrete ordinates method. A small number or ordinate directions are used to construct the reduced basis. The reduced model is then queried at the quadrature points for a high order quadrature in order to inexpensively approximate this highly accurate solution. This results in a much more accurate solution than can be achieved by the low-order quadrature alone. One-, two-, and three-dimensional test problems are presented.

A nonisothermal medium is modeled using the multilayer approach in which the continuous temperature distribution in a one-dimensional system as modeled as being piecewise constant. This has been shown to provide accurate results for a surprisingly small number of layers. Analysis is performed on a nonisothermal gray medium to attempt to characterize the ways in which the errors introduced by the multilayer modeling change with various physical parameters namely, the optical thickness and the temperature or emissive power gradient. A demonstration is made of how the multisource k-distribution method is capable of evaluating the heat flux within a one-dimensional system with piecewise constant temperature distribution with line-by-line accuracy with a significant decrease in computational expense. The k-distribution method for treating the spectral properties of an absorbing-emitting medium represents a powerful alternative to line-byline calculations by reducing the number of radiative transfer equation (RTE) evaluations from the order of a million to the order of 10 without any significant loss of accuracy. For problems where an appropriate reference temperature can be defined, the kdistribution method is formally exact. However, when no appropriate reference temperature can be defined, the method results in errors. The multisource k-distribution method extends the k-distribution method to problems with piecewise constant temperature and optical properties.

transfer modes are minimized or eliminated as in Dewar flasks and cryogenic storage systems. In this review, we discuss the common and not-so-common methods for treating radiation heat transfer in participating (absorbing/emitting and scattering) media, and how these methods are coupled with the overall energy equation for treating thermal transfer problems.Because radiation is almost inevitably coupled with other heat transfer modes, an overall thermal analysis requires solution of the energy equation, which is actually a balance of energy rates. Here, we follow the development in Howell et al. [1].The general form for the energy equation for a compressible fluid is where D/Dt is the substantial derivative, the left-hand side accounts for changes in stored energy within the medium, and the terms on the right-hand side account for changes in pressure work, contributions by conduction and radiation, internal sources (chemical, electrical, nuclear, etc.,), and viscous dissipation. In most practical thermal analysis problems, the pressure work and viscous dissipation terms can be neglected.Of greatest interest here is the evaluation of the local divergence of radiative flux, −∇ · q r . This is the difference in the local absorbed radiative energy minus the local emitted radiation, 4π ∞ =0 κ I b d , where κ λ is the local spectral absorptivity of the medium and I λb is the blackbody intensity given by the Planck distribution. In an absorbing-emitting-scattering medium, the absorbed radiative energy is found by first finding the local radiative intensity I λ (Ω), which is defined as the spectral energy propagating in a given direction Ω per unit solid angle, per unit area AbstractThe common methods for finding the local radiative flux divergence in participating media through solution of the radiative transfer equation are outlined. The pros and cons of each method are discussed in terms of their speed, ability to handle spectral properties and scattering phenomena, as well as their accuracy in different ranges of media transport properties. The suitability of each method for inclusion in the energy equation to efficiently solve multi-mode thermal transfer problems is discussed. Finally, remaining topics needing research are outlined.

This work applies a projection-based model-reduction approach to make high-order quadrature (HOQ) computationally feasible for the discrete ordinates approximation of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) for purely absorbing applications. In contrast to traditional discrete ordinates variants, the proposed method provides easily evaluated error estimates associated with the angular discretization as well as an efficient approach for reducing this error to an arbitrary level. In particular, the proposed approach constructs a reduced basis from (high-fidelity) solutions of the radiative intensity computed at a relatively small number of ordinate directions. Then, the method computes inexpensive approximations of the radiative intensity at the (remaining) quadrature points of a high-order quadrature using a reduced-order model (ROM) constructed from this reduced basis. This strategy results in a much more accurate solution than might have been achieved using only the ordinate directions used to construct the reduced basis. One- and three-dimensional test problems highlight the efficiency of the proposed method.

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