The cycloaddition of acetylenes with azides to give the corresponding 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles is reported using immobilised reagents and scavengers in pre-packed glass tubes in a modular flow reactor.
Microwave chemistry has already impacted significantly on the everyday synthesis of organic molecules. The adoption and integration of this liberating technology has permitted a resurrection of many synthetic transformations that were previously considered too extreme in their conditions (temperatures, pressures, reaction times) to be synthetically useful. Furthermore, whole arrays of additional chemical transformations have been devised under microwave heating that allow access to more diverse chemical architectures via more expedient routes. Continuous flow processing of chemical intermediates taking advantage of the unique heating mechanism and characteristics of microwave irradiation will certainly be the next evolutionary step forward in this area. The synergistic combination afforded by the simultaneous application of these two core processing tools will enhance still further the synthetic capabilities of tomorrow's chemists. This short review aims to highlight the current developments and future potential offered by continuous flow microwave mediated synthesis.
The bisoxazole containing natural product O-methyl siphonazole was assembled using a suite of microreactors via a flowbased approach in concert with traditional batch methods. The use of a toolbox of solid-supported scavengers and reagents to aid purification afforded the natural product in a total of nine steps.
The pharmaceutical industry is under increasing pressure on many fronts, from investors requiring larger returns to consumer groups and health authorities demanding cheaper and safer drugs. It is also feeling additional pressure from the infringement upon its profit margins by generic drug producers. Many companies are aggressively pursuing outsourcing contracts in an attempt to counter many of the financial pressures and streamline their operations. At the same time, the productivity of the pharmaceutical industry at its science base is being questioned in terms of the number of products and the timeframes required for each company to deliver them to market. This has generated uncertainties regarding the current corporate strategies that have been adopted and the levels of innovation being demonstrated. In this essay we discuss these topics in the context of the global pharmaceutical market, investigating the basis for many of these issues and highlighting the hurdles the industry needs to overcome, especially as they relate to the chemical sciences.
Oxidative addition of the electron-rich tetra-methoxy-dibenzo-1,2,5,6-tetrathiocine [(MeO)2C6H2S2]2 to zero-valent group 10 transition metal complexes in the presence of diphenylphosphinoethane (dppe) affords the corresponding dithiolate complexes, [(DMOBD)M(dppe)] (DMOBD = dimethoxybenzenedithiolato, (MeO)2C6H2S2(2-); M = Ni, Pd, Pt) in high yield which were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Whereas the Pd and Pt complexes exhibit two quasi-reversible 1e(-) oxidation processes, the nickel species undergoes a quasi-reversible 1e(-) reduction.
The concept of high spin and low spin configurations in d-block complexes is taught in every undergraduate introduction to the coordination chemistry of the transition metals. In this situation the interplay between interelectron repulsion or 'pairing energy' (P E ) and crystal (ligand) field splitting ( ) determines the electronic structure and provides an elegant example of how chemical tuning and modification of the ligand donor set can manipulate electronic structure. When is of a similar magnitude to P E then there is a fine balance between crystal field stabilisation energy (an enthalpic term which favours the low spin configuration) and maximising the number of microstates (an entropic term which favours the high spin configuration). In these cases spin-transitions typically occur between a low temperature enthalpically stabilised low spin configuration and a high temperature entropically favoured high spin configuration. The ability to drive spin-transitions thermally, through light-irradiation or pressure-induced transitions are the focus of the rest of this book. In this chapter we consider organic 'spin-transition' materials whose electronic structures can be manipulated in a conceptually similar but substantially different chemical fashion, that is by examining the fine interplay between inter-electron repulsion (P E ) and promotion energy to a low-lying vacant orbital ( ) within the context of organic chemistry.In order to understand the behaviour of such systems we shall begin with a discussion (Section 8.2) of stable free-radicals and their tendency to associate to form dimers, focusing on computational and experimental studies of the electronic structures of these dimers in the gas phase and in solution. In Section 8.3 we extend these discussions to the solid state and investigate examples in which we observe (i) thermal population of electronic excited states leading to a gradual thermal evolution of paramagnetism upon warming and (ii) firstorder solid state phase transitions in which bond cleavage can lead to abrupt diamagnetic-paramagnetic phase Spin-Crossover Materials: Properties and Applications, First Edition. Edited by Malcolm A. Halcrow.
The outcome of the oxidative addition reactions of bis(4',5'-dimethoxybenzo)-1,2,5,6-tetrathiocin to Pd2dba3 under microwave conditions is sensitive to the nature of the phosphine coreagent; the bidentate phosphines dppm, dppe, and dppf afford the mononuclear dithiolates (dmobdt)Pd(dppm) (4), (dmobdt)Pd(dppe) (2), and (dmobdt)Pd(dppf) (5), whereas more labile monodentate phosphines lead to aggregation; Ph3P afforded the dinuclear dithiolate (dmobdt)2Pd2(PPh3)2 (6), whereas (t)Bu3P generated the phosphine-free hexanuclear edge-capped octahedral complex Pd6(dmobdt)6 (7) [dmobdt = 4,5-dimethoxybenzenedithiolate, (MeO)2C6H2S2(2-)].
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