Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed in normal human prostate epithelium and is highly upregulated in prostate cancer. We previously reported a series of novel small molecule inhibitors targeting PSMA. Two compounds, MIP-1072, (S)-2-(3-((S)-1-carboxy-5-(4–iodobenzylamino)pentyl)ureido)pentanedioic acid and MIP-1095, (S)-2-(3-((S)-1-carboxy-5-(3-(4-iodophenyl)ureido)pentyl)ureido)pentanedioic acid, were selected for further evaluation. MIP-1072 and MIP-1095 potently inhibited the glutamate carboxypeptidase activity of PSMA (Ki = 4.6 ± 1.6 and 0.24 ± 0.14 nM, respectively), and when radiolabeled with 123I exhibited high affinity for PSMA on human prostate cancer LNCaP cells (Kd = 3.8 ± 1.3 and 0.81 ± 0.39 nM, respectively). The association of [123I]MIP-1072 and [123I]MIP-1095 with PSMA was specific; there was no binding to human prostate cancer PC3 cells, which lack PSMA, and binding was abolished by co-incubation with a structurally unrelated NAALADase inhibitor, 2-(phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic acid (PMPA). [123I]MIP-1072 and [123I]MIP-1095 internalized into LNCaP cells at 37 °C. Tissue distribution studies in mice demonstrated 17.3 ± 6.3 (at 1 hr) and 34.3 ± 12.7 (at 4 hr) % injected dose per gram of tissue, for [123I]MIP-1072 and [123I]MIP-1095, respectively. [123I]MIP-1095 exhibited greater tumor uptake but slower washout from blood and non-target tissues compared to [123I]MIP-1072. Specific binding to PSMA in vivo was demonstrated by competition with PMPA in LNCaP xenografts, and the absence of uptake in PC3 xenografts. The uptake of [123I]MIP-1072 and [123I]MIP-1095 in tumor bearing mice was corroborated by SPECT/CT imaging. PSMA-specific radiopharmaceuticals should provide a novel molecular targeting option for the detection and staging of prostate cancer.
Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a validated molecular marker for prostate cancer. A series of glutamate-urea (Glu-urea-X) heterodimeric inhibitors of PSMA were designed and synthesized where X = epsilon-N-(o-I, m-I, p-I, p-Br, o-Cl, m-Cl, p-Cl, p-F, H)-benzyl-Lys and epsilon-(p-I, p-Br, p-Cl, p-F, H)-phenylureido-Lys. The affinities for PSMA were determined by screening in a competitive binding assay. PSMA binding of the benzyllysine series was significantly affected by the nature of the halogen substituent (IC(50) values, Cl < I = Br << F = H) and the ring position of the halogen atom (IC(50) values, p-I < o-I << m-I). The halogen atom had little affect on the binding affinity in the para substituted phenylureido-Lys series. Two lead iodine compounds were radiolabeled with (123)I and (131)I and demonstrated specific PSMA binding on human prostate cancer cells, warranting evaluation as radioligands for the detection, staging, and monitoring of prostate cancer.
A hydrazinonicotinamide-functionalized cyclic platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) receptor antagonist [cyclo(D-Val-NMeArg-Gly-Asp-Mamb(5-(6-(6-hydrazinonicotin amido) hexanamide))) (HYNIC-tide)] was labeled with 99mTc using tricine and a water soluble phosphine (TPPTS, trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3"-trisulfonate; TPPDS, disodium triphenylphosphine-3,3'-disulfonate; or TPPMS, sodium triphenylphosphine-3-monosulfonate] as coligands. The synthesis of technetium complexes, [99mTc(HYNICtide)(L)(tricine)] (1, L = TPPTS; 2, L = TPPDS; 3, L = TPPMS), can be performed in one or two steps in high yield and with high specific activity (> or = 20,000 Ci/mmol). For example, the reaction of the HYNICtide, [99mTc]pertechnetate, stannous chloride, and tricine at pH 4-5 and room temperature results in the complex [99mTc(HYNICtide)(tricine)2], which reacts with TPPTS (50 degrees C for 30 min) to give complex 1 in > or = 90% yield as determined by radio-HPLC. Complexes 1-3 are formed as equal mixtures of two isomeric forms and are stable for > or = 6 h in the reaction mixture and in dilute solution. Both isomeric forms of complex 1 were found by a platelet-binding assay to contain the 99mTc-labeled HYNICtide and possess biological activity. The composition of these complexes was determined to be 1:1:1:1 for Tc:HYNICtide:L:tricine through a series of mixed ligand experiments on the tracer (99mTc) level. Surprisingly, this composition is maintained over a wide range of relative ligand ratios. The relative bonding capability of the three phosphine coligands to the Tc was determined by spiking various amounts of TPPDS or TPPMS into TPPTS and falls in the order TPPMS > TPPDS > TPPTS. The lipophilicity of the [99m Tc]HYNICtide complexes can be systematically varied by the choice of the phosphine and aminocarboxylate coligands. Using the combination of tricine and a phosphine ligand, HYNIC-derivatized peptides or other small molecules can be labeled with 99mTc in high specific activity and with high stability for potential use as radiopharmaceuticals.
This phase 1 study was performed to determine the pharmacokinetics and ability to visualize prostate cancer in bone, soft-tissue, and the prostate gland using 123 I-MIP-1072 and 123 I-MIP-1095, novel radiolabeled small molecules targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen. Methods: Seven patients with a documented history of prostate cancer by histopathology or radiologic evidence of metastatic disease were intravenously administered 370 MBq (10 mCi) of 123 I-MIP-1072 and 123 I-MIP-1095 2 wk apart in a crossover trial design. 123 I-MIP-1072 was also studied in 6 healthy volunteers. Whole-body planar and SPECT/CT imaging was performed and pharmacokinetics studied over 2-3 d. Target-to-background ratios were calculated. Absorbed radiation doses were estimated using OLINDA/EXM. Results: 123 I-MIP-1072 and 123 I-MIP-1095 visualized lesions in soft tissue, bone, and the prostate gland within 0.5-1 h after injection, with retention beyond 48 h. Target-to-background ratios from planar images averaged 2:1 at 1 h, 3:1 at 4-24 h, and greater than 10:1 at 4 and 24 h for SPECT/CT. Both agents cleared the blood in a biphasic manner; clearance of 123 I-MIP-1072 was approximately 5 times faster. 123 I-MIP-1072 was excreted in the urine, with 54% and 74% present by 24 and 72 h, respectively. In contrast, only 7% and 20% of 123 I-MIP-1095 had been renally excreted by 24 and 72 h, respectively. Estimated absorbed radiation doses were 0.054 versus 0.110 mGy/MBq for the kidneys and 0.024 versus 0.058 mGy/MBq for the liver, for 123 I-MIP-1072 and 123 I-MIP-1095, respectively. Conclusion: 123 I-MIP-1072 and 123 I-MIP-1095 detect lesions in soft tissue, bone, and the prostate gland at as early as 1-4 h. These novel radiolabeled small molecules have excellent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles and warrant further development as diagnostic and potentially when labeled with 131 I therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals.
A series of 99mTc complexes containing a hydrazinonicotinamide-conjugated cyclic IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist, cyclo(D-Val-NMeArg-Gly-Asp-Mamb-(hydrazinonicotinyl-5- (6-aminocaproic acid))), were synthesized in high yield using tricine or other aminocarboxylates as coligands. These 99mTc complexes have the potential to be used as thrombus imaging agents. The radiolabeling of the HYNIC-conjugated cyclic IIb/IIIa peptide (HYNICtide) was carried out by reaction with pertechnetate in the presence of excess tricine and stannous chloride at pH 4-5. The reaction time and temperature depend on the amount of the HYNICtide and pertechnetate used for the radiolabeling. Very high specific activity (> or = 20,000 mCi/mumol) can be achieved for the complex [99mTc(HYNICtide)(tricine)2] without postlabeling purification. The complex [99mTc(HYNICtide)(tricine)2] was found by two reversed phase HPLC methods to exist as multiple species, some of which interconvert, depending on the temperature, reaction time, and pH of the reaction mixture. The presence of these multiple species is most likely due to different bonding modalities of either the hydrazine moiety of the HYNICtide or the two tricine coligands. The complex [99mTc(HYNICtide)(EDDA)] (EDDA = ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid) was prepared either by reacting the cyclic IIb/IIIa HYNICtide with pertechnetate, excess EDDA, and stannous chloride at pH 4-5 and 75 degrees C for 30 min or by reacting excess EDDA with [99mTc(HYNICtide)(tricine)2]. The complex [99mTc(HYNICtide)(EDDA)] was found to be stable for at least 12 h in the reaction mixture. Three major species were detected in the radio-HPLC chromatograms, presumably due to the more limited number of possible coordination isomers. Similar results were obtained using other polydentate aminocarboxylates (such as HEDTA, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid) as coligands. It is clear that the replacement of tricine by other polydentate aminocarboxylates produces 99mTc-HYNICtide complexes with higher stability and fewer coordination isomers.
This report describes the (99m)Tc labeling of a HYNIC-conjugated vitronectin receptor antagonist (SQ168 = [2-[[[5-[carboonyl]-2-pyridinyl]hydrazono]methyl]benzenesulfonic acid]-Glu(cyclo[Lys-Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe])-cyclo[Lys-Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe]). The ternary ligand complex [(99m)Tc(SQ168)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (RP593) was prepared using a non-SnCl(2)-containing formulation. The corresponding (99)Tc analogue, [(99)Tc]RP593, was also prepared and characterized by HPLC and LC-MS. A HPLC concordance experiment using RP593 and [(99)Tc]RP593 showed that the same technetium complex was prepared at both the tracer and macroscopic levels. The LC-MS data is completely consistent with the 1:1:1:1 composition for Tc:SQ168:tricine:TPPTS and provides direct evidence that the two radiometric peaks in the radio-HPLC chromatogram of RP593 are indeed due to the resolution of diastereomers. In an in vitro receptor binding assay, [(99)Tc]RP593 was shown to have comparable binding affinity for the vitronectin receptor to that of SQ168 itself.
A hydrazinonicotinamide-functionalized cyclic glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) receptor antagonist [cyclo(D-Val-NMeArg-Gly-Asp-Mamb(5-(6-(6-hydrazinonicotin amido)hexanamide))) (HYNICtide)] was labeled with 99mTc using tricine and a water soluble phosphine [trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3"-trisulfonate (TPPTS); disodium triphenylphosphine-3,3'-disulfonate (TPPDS); or sodium triphenylphosphine-3-monosulfonate (TPPMS)] as coligands. Three complexes, [99mTc(HYNICtide)(L)(tricine)] (1, L = TPPTS; 2, L = TPPDS; 3, L = TPPMS), were evaluated in the canine arteriovenous shunt (AV shunt) model and canine deep vein thrombosis imaging (DVT) model. All three agents were adequately incorporated into the arterial and venous portions of the growing thrombus (7.8-9.9 and 0.2-3.7% ID/g, respectively) in the canine AV shunt model. In the canine DVT model all three complexes had thrombus uptake that far exceeded the negative control, [99mTc]albumin. The findings indicate similar incorporation into a venous thrombus (% ID/g = 2.86 +/- 0.4, 3.4 +/- 0.9, and 3.38 +/- 1.1 for complexes 1, 2, and 3, respectively) and similar blood clearance with a t1/2 of approximately 90 min. Gamma camera scintigraphy allowed visualization of deep vein thrombosis in as little as 15 min with the thrombus/muscle ratios being 3.8 +/- 0.8, 2.8 +/- 0.4, and 3.0 +/- 0.8 for complexes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The visualization of the thrombus improved over time, and the thrombus/muscle ratios were 9.7 +/- 1.9, 13.8 +/- 3.6, and 9.4 +/- 2 for complexes 1, 2, and 3, respectively, at 120 min postinjection. The administration of complexes 1-3 did not alter platelet function, hemodynamics, or the coagulation cascade. Furthermore, complexes 1-3 did not significantly differ in their uptake into the growing thrombus, blood clearance, and target to background ratios. Therefore, all three complexes have the capability to detect rapidly growing venous and arterial thrombi.
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