BackgroundMacrophage‐mediated chronic inflammation is mechanistically linked to insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Although arginase I is considered antiinflammatory, the role of arginase II (Arg‐II) in macrophage function remains elusive. This study characterizes the role of Arg‐II in macrophage inflammatory responses and its impact on obesity‐linked type II diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis.Methods and ResultsIn human monocytes, silencing Arg‐II decreases the monocytes’ adhesion to endothelial cells and their production of proinflammatory mediators stimulated by oxidized low‐density lipoprotein or lipopolysaccharides, as evaluated by real‐time quantitative reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction and enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay. Macrophages differentiated from bone marrow cells of Arg‐II–deficient (Arg‐II−/−) mice express lower levels of lipopolysaccharide‐induced proinflammatory mediators than do macrophages of wild‐type mice. Importantly, reintroducing Arg‐II cDNA into Arg‐II−/− macrophages restores the inflammatory responses, with concomitant enhancement of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species by N‐acetylcysteine prevents the Arg‐II–mediated inflammatory responses. Moreover, high‐fat diet–induced infiltration of macrophages in various organs and expression of proinflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue are blunted in Arg‐II−/− mice. Accordingly, Arg‐II−/− mice reveal lower fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, apolipoprotein E (ApoE)–deficient mice with Arg‐II deficiency (ApoE−/−Arg‐II−/−) display reduced lesion size with characteristics of stable plaques, such as decreased macrophage inflammation and necrotic core. In vivo adoptive transfer experiments reveal that fewer donor ApoE−/−Arg‐II−/− than ApoE−/−Arg‐II+/+ monocytes infiltrate into the plaque of ApoE−/−Arg‐II+/+ mice. Conversely, recipient ApoE−/−Arg‐II−/− mice accumulate fewer donor monocytes than do recipient ApoE−/−Arg‐II+/+ animals.ConclusionsArg‐II promotes macrophage proinflammatory responses through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, contributing to insulin resistance and atherogenesis. Targeting Arg‐II represents a potential therapeutic strategy in type II diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e000992 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.000992.)
Background-The circadian clock regulates biological processes including cardiovascular function and metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the role of the circadian clock gene Period2 (Per2) in endothelial function in a mouse model. Methods and Results-Compared with the wild-type littermates, mice with Per2 mutation exhibited impaired endotheliumdependent relaxations to acetylcholine in aortic rings suspended in organ chambers. During transition from the inactive to active phase, this response was further increased in the wild-type mice but further decreased in the Per2 mutants. The endothelial dysfunction in the Per2 mutants was also observed with ionomycin, which was improved by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. No changes in the expression of endothelial acetylcholine-M 3 receptor or endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein but increased cyclooxygenase-1 (not cyclooxygenase-2) protein levels were observed in the aortas of the Per2 mutants. Compared with Per2 mutants, a greater endothelium-dependent relaxation to ATP was observed in the wild-type mice, which was reduced by indomethacin. In quiescent aortic rings, ATP caused greater endothelium-dependent contractions in the Per2 mutants than in the wild-type mice, contractions that were abolished by indomethacin. The endothelial dysfunction in the Per2 mutant mice is not associated with hypertension or dyslipidemia. Conclusions-Mutation in the Per2 gene in mice is associated with aortic endothelial dysfunction involving decreased production of NO and vasodilatory prostaglandin(s) and increased release of cyclooxygenase-1-derived vasoconstrictor(s). The results suggest an important role of the Per2 gene in maintenance of normal cardiovascular functions.
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6K1 signalling emerges as a critical regulator of aging. Yet, a role of mTOR/S6K1 in aging-associated vascular endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of S6K1 in aging-associated endothelial dysfunction and effects of the polyphenol resveratrol on S6K1 in aging endothelial cells. We show here that senescent endothelial cells displayed higher S6K1 activity, increased superoxide production and decreased bioactive nitric oxide (NO) levels than young endothelial cells, which is contributed by eNOS uncoupling. Silencing S6K1 in senescent cells reduced superoxide generation and enhanced NO production. Conversely, over-expression of a constitutively active S6K1 mutant in young endothelial cells mimicked endothelial dysfunction of the senescent cells through eNOS uncoupling and induced premature cellular senescence. Like the mTOR/S6K1 inhibitor rapamycin, resveratrol inhibited S6K1 signalling, resulting in decreased superoxide generation and enhanced NO levels in the senescent cells. Consistent with the data from cultured cells, an enhanced S6K1 activity, increased superoxide generation, and decreased bioactive NO levels associated with eNOS uncoupling were also detected in aortas of old WKY rats (aged 20–24 months) as compared to the young animals (1–3 months). Treatment of aortas of old rats with resveratrol or rapamycin inhibited S6K1 activity, oxidative stress, and improved endothelial NO production. Our data demonstrate a causal role of the hyperactive S6K1 in eNOS uncoupling leading to endothelial dysfunction and vascular aging. Resveratrol improves endothelial function in aging, at least in part, through inhibition of S6K1. Targeting S6K1 may thus represent a novel therapeutic approach for aging-associated vascular disease.
Rajapakse AG, Ming XF, Carvas JM, Yang Z. The hexosamine biosynthesis inhibitor azaserine prevents endothelial inflammation and dysfunction under hyperglycemic condition through antioxidant effects. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 296: H815-H822, 2009. First published January 9, 2009 doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00756.2008.-Hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) accounts for some cardiovascular adverse effects of hyperglycemia. We investigated whether the HBP inhibitor azaserine protects against hyperglycemia-induced endothelial damage dependently of HBP. Human endothelial cells isolated from umbilical veins were exposed either to a high (30.5 mmol/l) or low concentration of glucose (5.5 mmol/l) for 4 days, followed by a stimulation with TNF-␣ (1 ng/ml, 24 h). The blockade of the rate-limiting enzyme glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase inhibited HBP flux and oxidative stress (generation of superoxide and peroxynitrite) under the hyperglycemic condition and prevented the synergistic stimulation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression by hyperglycemia and TNF-␣. In the cells cultured under a low-glucose condition when no increased HBP flux occurred, azaserine enhanced the manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein level and also inhibited the oxidative stress and the expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in response to TNF-␣. Moreover, the polyphenol resveratrol inhibited the oxidative stress and adhesion molecule expression and did not decrease the HBP flux under the hyperglycemia condition. In addition, in isolated rat aortas exposed to hyperglycemic buffer for 5 h when no significant HBP flux occurred, azaserine upregulated the MnSOD protein level and prevented decreased endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine. In conclusion, hyperglycemia independently increases oxidative stress and HBP flux, amplifies endothelial inflammation, and impairs endothelial function mainly through oxidative stress and not the HBP pathway. Azaserine protects against hyperglycemic endothelial damage through its antioxidant effect independently of inhibiting HBP pathway. adhesion molecules; endothelium; glucose; O-linked acetylglusamine; superoxide DIABETES MELLITUS is highly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality (10, 34). Chronic hyperglycemia causes glucotoxicity to vascular cells, particularly the endothelial cells, resulting in an increased incidence of cardiovascular events (7). Clinical and experimental studies provide compelling evidence showing that hyperglycemia is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations (7) and increased endothelial expression of adhesion molecules, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (20, 31). The decreased endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) function and upregulation of the adhesion molecules enhance the adhesion of inflammatory cells onto the endothelium followed by a transmigration of the cells into the subendothelial space, a key early process in atherogenesis (15). Numerous proi...
Background: Pharmacological inhibition of endothelial arginase-II has been shown to improve endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function and reduce atherogenesis in animal models. We investigated whether the endothelial arginase II is involved in inflammatory responses in endothelial cells.
Period2 (Per2) is an important component of the circadian clock. Mutation of this gene is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction and altered glucose metabolism. The aim of this study is to further characterize whole body glucose homeostasis and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production in response to insulin in the mPer2Brdm1 mice. We show that mPer2Brdm1 mice exhibit compromised insulin receptor activation and Akt signaling in various tissues including liver, fat, heart, and aortas with a tissue-specific heterogeneous diurnal pattern, and decreased insulin-stimulated NO release in the aortas in both active and inactive phases of the animals. As compared to wild type (WT) mice, the mPer2Brdm1 mice reveal hyperinsulinemia, hypoglycemia with lower fasting hepatic glycogen content and glycogen synthase level, no difference in glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. The mPer2Brdm1 mice do not show increased predisposition to obesity either on normal chow or high fat diet compared to WT controls. Thus, mice with Per2 gene mutation show altered glucose homeostasis and compromised insulin-stimulated NO release, independently of obesity.
a b s t r a c tRapamycin has been reported to enhance tissue factor (TF) expression. The present study investigated roles of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream S6K1 in this process. We showed here that, consistent with rapamycin, knocking-down mTOR enhanced thrombininduced TF mRNA and protein levels, whereas silencing S6K1 mitigated up-regulation of TF protein but not TF mRNA level. The enhanced TF protein level upon mTOR-silencing was further augmented by over-expression of a constitutively active S6K1 mutant and reduced by blocking RhoA, p38 mapk or NF-jB. The results reveal an opposing and uncoupling effect of mTOR and S6K1 in regulating TF expression.
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