This paper presents a review of automated image registration methodologies that have been used in the medical field. The aim of this paper is to be an introduction to the field, provide knowledge on the work that has been developed and to be a suitable reference for those who are looking for registration methods for a specific application. The registration methodologies under review are classified into intensity or feature based. The main steps of these methodologies, the common geometric transformations, the similarity measures and accuracy assessment techniques are introduced and described.
This paper aims to make a review on the current segmentation algorithms used for medical images.Algorithms are classified according to their principal methodologies, namely the ones based on thresholds, the ones based on clustering techniques and the ones based on deformable models. The last type is focused due to the intensive investigations on the deformable models that have been done in the last few decades. Typical algorithms of each type are discussed and the main ideas, application fields, advantages and disadvantages of each type are summarized. Experiments that apply these algorithms to segment the organs and tissues of the female pelvic cavity are presented to further illustrate their distinct characteristics. In the end the main guidelines that should be considered for designing the segmentation algorithms of the pelvic cavity are proposed.
Lung abnormalities are highly risky conditions in humans. The early diagnosis of lung abnormalities is essential to reduce the risk by enabling quick and efficient treatment. This research work aims to propose a Deep-Learning (DL) framework to examine lung pneumonia and the cancer. This work proposes two different DL practices to evaluate the considered problem: (i) The initial DL method, named a modified AlexNet (MAN), is implemented to classify chest X-Ray images into normal and pneumonia class. In the MAN, the classification is implemented using with Support Vector Machine (SVM), and its performance is compared against Softmax. Further, its performance is validated with other pre-trained DL techniques, such as AlexNet, VGG16, VGG19 and ResNet50. (ii) The second DL work implements a fusion of handcrafted and learned features in the MAN to improve the classification accuracy during lung cancer assessment. This work employs serial fusion and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based features selection to enhance the feature vector. The performance of this DL structure is tested by the benchmark lung cancer CT images of LIDC-IDRI and superior classification accuracy of >97.27% is achieved.
In this work, a comparative study on different drill point geometries and feed rate for composite laminates drilling is presented. For this goal, thrust force monitoring during drilling, hole wall roughness measurement and delamination extension assessment after drilling is accomplished. Delamination is evaluated using enhanced radiography combined with a dedicated computational platform that integrates algorithms of image processing and analysis. An experimental procedure was planned and consequences were evaluated. Results show that a cautious combination of the factors involved, like drill tip geometry or feed rate, can promote the reduction of delamination damage.
Skin cancer is considered as one of the most common types of cancer in several countries, and its incidence rate has increased in recent years. Melanoma cases have caused an increasing number of deaths worldwide, since this type of skin cancer is the most aggressive compared to other types. Computational methods have been developed to assist dermatologists in early diagnosis of skin cancer. An overview of the main and current computational methods that have been proposed for pattern analysis and pigmented skin lesion classification is addressed in this review. In addition, a discussion about the application of such methods, as well as future trends, is also provided. Several methods for feature extraction from both macroscopic and dermoscopic images and models for feature selection are introduced and discussed. Furthermore, classification algorithms and evaluation procedures are described, and performance results for lesion classification and pattern analysis are given.
This work presents a systematic review of techniques for the 3D automatic detection of pulmonary nodules in computerized-tomography (CT) images.Its main goals are to analyze the latest technology being used for the development of computational diagnostic tools to assist in the acquisition, storage and, mainly, processing and analysis of the biomedical data. Also, this work identifies the progress made, so far, evaluates the challenges to be overcome and provides an analysis of future prospects. As far as the authors know, this is the first time that a review is devoted exclusively to automated 3D techniques for the detection of pulmonary nodules from lung CT images, which makes this work of noteworthy value. The research covered the published works in the Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct and IEEEXplore up to December 2014. Each work found that referred to automated 3D segmentation of the lungs was individually analyzed to identify its objective, methodology and results. Based on the analysis of the selected works, several studies were seen to be useful for the construction of medical diagnostic * Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. 31, 2015 aid tools. However, there are certain aspects that still require attention such as increasing algorithm sensitivity, reducing the number of false positives, improving and optimizing the algorithm detection of different kinds of nodules with different sizes and shapes and, finally, the ability to integrate with the Electronic Medical Record Systems and Picture Archiving and Communication Systems. Based on this analysis, we can say that further research is needed to develop current techniques and that new algorithms are needed to overcome the identified drawbacks.
Preprint submitted to Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine August
The privacy of patients is jeopardised when medical records and data are spread or shared beyond the protected cloud of institutions. This is because breaches force them to the brink that they start abstaining from full disclosure of their condition. This type of condition has a negative effect on scientific research, patients and all stakeholders. A blockchain-based data sharing system is proposed to tackle this issue, which employs immutability and autonomy properties of the blockchain to sufficiently resolve challenges associated with access control and handle sensitive data. Our proposed system is supported by a Discrete Wavelet Transform to enhance the overall security, and a Genetic Algorithm technique to optimise the queuing optimization technique as well. Introducing this cryptographic key generator enhances the immunity and system access control, which allows verifying users securely in a fast way. This design allows further accountability since all users involved are already known and the blockchain records a log of their actions. Only when the users' cryptographic keys and identities are confirmed, the system allows requesting data from the shared queuing requests. The achieved execution time per node, confirmation time per node and robust index for block number of 0.19 second, 0.17 second and 20 respectively that based on system evaluation illustrates that our system is robust, efficient, immune and scalable.
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