Objectives-To determine the molecular basis for autosomal dominant intermediate hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) in a four generation family. The gene defects in families with intermediate HMSN are not known, but it has been suggested that most have X linked HMSN. Methods-All participating family members were examined clinically. Genomic DNA was obtained from 10 aVected and seven unaVected members. Linkage analysis for the known HMSN loci was first performed. Mutations in the peripheral myelin protein zero gene (PMP0) were sought in two aVected members, using one unaVected member for comparison, by amplification of the six exons of the gene followed by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, dideoxy fingerprinting (ddF), and sequencing. Subsequently, the mutation was screened for in all aVected and unaVected members in the family using Alu I digestion and in 100 unrelated control subjects using "snap back" SSCP analysis. Sequencing of cDNA from a sural nerve biopsy from an aVected member was also performed. Results-The clinical phenotype was of variable severity, with motor nerve conduction velocities in the intermediate range. Linkage to PMP0 was demonstrated. Analysis of genomic DNA and cDNA for PMP0 identified a novel codon 35 GAC to TAC mutation. The mutation produces an inferred amino acid change of aspartate to tyrosine at codon six of the processed protein (Asp6Tyr) in the extracellular domain and was present in all aVected family members but not in 100 unrelated controls. Conclusions-The present findings further extend the range of phenotypes associated with PMP0 mutations and indicate that families with "intermediate" HMSN need not necessarily be X-linked as previously suggested. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999;67:174-179)
Despite rapid growth of the biotechnology industry worldwide, a number of public concerns about the application of biotechnology and its regulation remain. In response to these concerns, greater emphasis has been placed on promoting biotechnologists' public engagement. As tertiary science degree programs form the foundation of the biotechnology sector by providing a pipeline of university graduates entering into the profession, it has been proposed that formal science communication training be introduced at this early stage of career development. The aim of the present study was to examine the views of biotechnology students towards In biotechnology, rapid advances have generated considerable controversy and public concern. While the governments of many countries see the commercialisation of biotechnology to be of benefit for society and the economy, not all members of the public share this view. Surveys of the public's attitudes towards biotechnology in America and Europe indicate that biotechnology raises a number of issues for the public, including the 'unnaturalness' of genetic manipulation, levels of acceptable risk and usefulness of new products (see Gaskell et al., 2000;Priest, 2000;Smith, 2001). In Australia, the federal government has examined attitudes to biotechnology 4 in a series of biannual surveys (Eureka Strategic Research, 2005;Millward Brown, 2001Yann Campbell Hoare Wheeler, 1999). These surveys suggest the majority of Australians see the application of gene technology as risky. In the most recent survey (Eureka Strategic Research, 2007), a majority (87%) of the 1067Australians surveyed expressed the view that gene technology was likely to create "significant problems in the future" (p. 13).Negative public perceptions of biotechnology pose a number of significant problems for the industry. Community resistance to technological advances have resulted in the rejection of products outright and the inhibition of research and development progress through bans and moratoriums. This has been particularly evident in the genetically modified food industry in Europe and increasingly in Australia (Smith, 2001). AusBiotech, Australia's national biotechnology industry organisation, has acknowledged that uncertainty about adoption of new biotechnologies by the community and regulatory bodies has prevented the Australian biotechnology sector from realising its full potential (Carroll, 2006). They noted that stem cell research and genetically modified crops, in particular, are areas that have failed to translate from advances in research to economic and social advantage. A decreased ability to attract secondary students to undergraduate biotechnology programs in Australia has also been attributed to negative public perceptions of the industry. The skills shortage that is predicted to result from this reduction in undergraduate biotechnology enrolments has been described as "one of the biggest threats" to the biotechnology profession (Lavelle, 2006, p. 20).
5Increased recognition of the influence of pub...
The polymorphic marker which we characterized was useful in determining allelic loss at the CyP40 locus in breast cancer patients and when applied in these studies in conjunction with various cancer-associated gene markers, suggests that deletions in the region of the CyP40 gene might be a late event in breast tumor progression.
Public concerns about biotechnology have resulted in greater attention being paid to the mechanisms by which biotechnology is communicated with non-scientists, including the provision of science communication training. As undergraduate and postgraduate courses form the foundation of the biotechnology sector by providing a pipeline of university graduates entering into the profession, it has been proposed that formal science communication training be introduced at this early stage of career development. Using an Australian biotechnology degree course as a case study, this paper examines science communication training within this course and the views of past and present students towards this training. Interviews were undertaken with 22 stakeholders in the case, including undergraduate lecturers (who also supervise postgraduate research students), doctoral candidates and biotechnologists recently graduated from the course. Few of the students felt the course provided them with any form of science communication training, let alone training in how to engage non-scientists. Many were unaware of the training available to them and few of the lecturers were able to identify where communication skills are taught within the course. A previous study of this case has also shown that biotechnology undergraduates taking this course do not value communication with non-scientists. Clearly, the current state of science communication training for these students needs to be improved if they are to enter the biotechnology workforce as able civic scientists. The findings of this study may be useful for other university biotechnology courses which have yet to integrate science communication training into their curriculum.
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