Diabetic maculopathy (DM) is one of the major causes of vision impairment in individuals with diabetes. The traditional approach to diagnosis of DM includes fundus ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography. Although very useful clinically, these methods do not contribute much to the evaluation of retinal morphology and its thickness profile. That is why a new technique called optical coherence tomography (OCT) was utilized to perform cross-sectional imaging of the retina. It facilitates measuring the macular thickening, quantification of diabetic macular oedema, and detecting vitreoretinal traction. Thus, OCT may assist in patient selection with DM who can benefit from treatment, identify what treatment is indicated, guide its implementing, and allow precise monitoring of treatment response. It seems to be the technique of choice for the early detection of macular oedema and for the followup of DM.
Aim To evaluate the structural and functional outcomes in patients who underwent macular hole (MH) surgery in the long-term follow-up. Materials and Methods Forty-four eyes of 40 patients (28 females and 12 males) were examined. The examination included visual acuity, optical coherence tomography, and colour vision testing. The same evaluation was performed in 30 fellow eyes. Results MH closure was obtained in 42 eyes (95.45%). There was no reopening of the initially closed MHs. In long-term postoperative examination, we observed IS/OS junction defects in 28 (63.6%) eyes and ELM defects in 19 (43.2%) eyes. We found that the IS/OS junction defects correlated with the diameter of the MH (p=0.016), whereas ELM defects correlated with both the diameter of the MH (p=0.001) and duration time of the MH (p=0.008). The presence of ELM defects in OCT was the cause of inferior BCVA in long-term observation time (p=0.004). The mean BCVA before the MH surgery was 0.15. It improved significantly both in early (p < 0.001) and long-term postoperative observation (p < 0.005). Generally, the functional outcomes were better in eyes with short-time duration of the MH, when a smaller diameter (<400 μm) of the hole was measured and a V-shaped closure of the MH and the restoration of the ELM line on OCT were present. Pseudoprotanomaly was noted in 13 (35.1%) eyes. In the fellow eye group, mean BCVA was 0.95 (range, 0.6–1.0). In 3 eyes, we detected vitreomacular traction, and in 4 eyes, initial cataract. These conditions, as well as probably early stage of diabetes mellitus, influenced functional outcomes of studied eyes. Conclusions The anatomic and functional outcomes after macular surgery are satisfactory and improve with time. After a successful closing of the MH, the restoration of the retina progresses at a slower pace than improvement in visual acuity.
Abstract. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) is an age-associated, sight disorder affecting elastic fibers in the eye and visceral organs but its exact etiology remains unknown. The purpose of the current study was to determine the morphology and ultrastructure of lens epithelial cells (LECs), and to use immunohistochemistry to examine localization of microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1) and clusterin. Anterior lens capsules were obtained from 24 patients (13 PEX and 11 controls) who underwent phacoemulsification. Immunohistochemistry was performed, using antibodies against MGST1 and clusterin, to determine their expression. The morphology and ultrastructure of LECs were evaluated by light and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The PEX LECs were characterized by significantly lower MGST1 (P= 0.0001) and clusterin expression (P= 0.0005) compared with the control group patients. PEX LECs were also observed to have significantly increased thickness compared with the control group patients (P= 0.0002). The current findings suggest that low MGST1 and clusterin expression levels may be an early clinical indicator of PEX, and that oxidative stress may serve an important role, but that the specific etiology of this disease has yet to be revealed.
In this patient, the use of a collagen sponge filled with gentamicin was effective in preventing infection and promoting healing of multiple full-thickness pressure ulcers. Long-term use was not associated with any adverse effects, even in this frail and immobile patient.
Retinal artery occlusion (RAO) is uncommon before the age of 40 years. Bilateral RAO at young age are extremely rare. The etiology of RAO is usually associated with atherosclerotic risk factors and the presence of intravascular or intracardiac embolic material. In young adults, RAO may be manifestation of heart pathologies or inherited or acquired thrombophilia. We discuss characteristics, diagnostics and important clinical implications basing on the case of a previously healthy, non-smoking, non-hormonal therapy, a 33-year-old female with bilateral non-simultaneous RAO.
The aim of the study was the assessment of the von Willebrand antigen (vWF Ag), E-selectin, and P-selectin concentration in blood plasma of patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX). The group studied comprised 30 patients with PEX, aged from 50 to 86 years (mean 73, SD ± 8 years). Patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, infectious disease, cancer, renal or liver insufficiency, connective tissue disease, current smoking, and hormone, antiplatelet, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, or antihypertensive drug therapy were excluded from the study. Each subject underwent a complete ophthalmological examination. Venous blood samples from the cubital vein were taken into sodium citrate solution. VWF Ag, sP-selectin, and sE-selectin concentration were determined by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MedSystems, Diagnostica Stago/Roche, R&D). Concentrations of vWF Ag, soluble E-selectin, and soluble P-selectin in blood plasma in the study group were compared with the levels in blood plasma in the control group. No significant differences were found between the groups. Our results indicate that there might be no correlation between PEX and such endothelial cell markers as vWF Ag, sP-selectin, and sE-selectin concentrations. Since the study size is limited, further investigations to confirm that there is no association between endothelial dysfunction in PEX and risk of future cardiovascular disease are necessary.
Purpose To evaluate the expression profiles of the VEGFα and TGFβ in the ERMs and ILMs in retinal disorders. Methods In this nonrandomized prospective study, 75 patients (34 females and 41 males) referred to pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) due to different retinal diseases were enrolled to the study. The samples of ERMs and ILMs collected during PPV were immediately put in TRIzol® Reagent (Life Technologies, USA) and stored at −70°C until RNA extraction. Gene expression analysis was done with TaqMan® Gene Expression Assays (Applied Biosystems, USA) following the manufacturer's instructions. Results The gene expression levels of VEGFα as well as of TGFβ2 were significantly higher in ERMs than in ILMs in all studied groups. The level of TGFβ2 expression exhibits a significantly lower values in iERMs as compared with the RRD group (p = 0.043). There were differences in TGFβ2 expression in ILM in groups studied: DR versus RRD, p = 0.003; DR versus iERM, p = 0,047; and iERM versus RRD, p = 0.004. Conclusions Our results revealed that factors associated with angiogenesis and wound healing processes in eyes with RRD, PDR, iERM, and MH were more upregulated in ERMs than in ILMs. This may indicate that ILM is not responsible for reproliferation and its peeling should be avoided in routine PPV.
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