Leishmaniases are neglected tropical diseases and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis are the most important causative agents of leishmaniases in the New World. These two parasite species may co-circulate in a given endemic area but their interactions in the vector have not been studied yet. We conducted experimental infections using both single infections and co-infections to compare the development of L. (L.) infantum (OGVL/mCherry) and L. (V.) braziliensis (XB29/GFP) in Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia migonei. Parasite labelling by different fluorescein proteins enabled studying interspecific competition and localization of different parasite species during co-infections. Both Leishmania species completed their life cycle, producing infective forms in both sand fly species studied. The same happens in the co infections, demonstrating that the two parasites conclude their development and do not compete with each other. However, infections produced by L. (L.) infantum reached higher rates and grew more vigorously, as compared to L. (V.) braziliensis. In late-stage infections, L. (L.) infantum was present in all midgut regions, showing typical suprapylarian type of development, whereas L. (V.) braziliensis was concentrated in the hindgut and the abdominal midgut (peripylarian development). We concluded that both Lu. migonei and Lu. longipalpis are equally susceptible vectors for L. (L.) infantum, in laboratory colonies. In relation to L. (V.) braziliensis, Lu. migonei appears to be more susceptible to this parasite than Lu. longipalpis. Leishmaniases are important parasitic diseases, causing serious medical problems in many countries, as they rank in the top-three list of neglected tropical diseases caused by protists 1. The causative agents, flagellates of the genus Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), subgenera Leishmania and Viannia, are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) 2. In Brazil, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis are the most important causative agents of leishmaniases in humans 3. L. (V.) braziliensis causes a typical cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which may progress to mucosal disease, whereas L. (L.) infantum infections is responsible for a life-threatening form of the disease-visceral leishmaniasis (VL). These two parasite species also differ in their development in the sand fly vector; both colonize the sand fly midgut, but only L. (V.) braziliensis was documented to colonize the hindgut (peripylarian development) 4 .
Background: Various vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) affect dogs worldwide, with their diversity and force of infection being usually higher in the tropics. Cross-sectional studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence of VBPs in dogs, but data from longitudinal studies are scarce. Herein, we assessed the prevalence and the year-crude incidence (YCI) of Leishmania spp. and other VBPs in privately-owned dogs from two geographical regions of Brazil.Methods: A total of 823 dogs were initially screened for Leishmania spp. by both serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). From the negatives, 307 (103 from São Joaquim de Bicas, Minas Gerais, and 204 from Goiana, Pernambuco) were randomly selected for the longitudinal study. These dogs were tested for various VBPs at baseline, after 8 and 12 months.Results: Out of 823 dogs initially screened, 131 (15.9%) were positive for Leishmania spp. Out of the 307 dogs enrolled in the longitudinal study, 120 (39.1%) were lost for different reasons (e.g. animal death, owner decision, and lost to follow-up). In São Joaquim de Bicas, the baseline prevalence and YCI were as follows: 16.5% and 7.1% for Anaplasma spp.; 81.6% and 100% for Babesia spp.; 0% and 1.3% (only one faint positive) for Dirofilaria immitis; 37.9% and 22.9% for Ehrlichia spp.; 19.5% and 43.8% for Leishmania spp. In Goiana, the baseline prevalence and YCI were as follows: 45.1% and 38.3% for Anaplasma spp.; 79.9% and 96.0% for Babesia spp.; 36.3% and 39.8% for D. immitis; 64.7% and 58.5% for Ehrlichia spp.; 14.7% and 19.6% for Leishmania spp. Anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies were not detected in any of the samples tested herein. The prevalence and YCI of Anaplasma spp., D. immitis and Ehrlichia spp. were significantly higher in Goiana. In contrast, the YCI of Leishmania spp. infection was significantly higher in São Joaquim de Bicas.
Conclusions:We confirmed a high prevalence and YCI of various VBPs among privately-owned dogs in two geographical regions of Brazil. Our data also indicate that the risk of infection varies significantly for individual VBPs and between the regions, which may be related to several factors that are still poorly understood.
Several studies have described the use of non-invasive collection methods, mostly
based on the detection of parasite DNA, for diagnosis. However, no
Leishmania specimens have been isolated from saliva. Here,
we report the first isolation of Leishmania braziliensis from
the saliva of humans with cutaneous leishmaniasis but without lesions on their
mucosa. The isolates were obtained from salivary fluid inoculated in hamsters
and were tested by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Seven samples from 43
patients suspected of having the disease were identified for in
vivo culture. These findings suggest that saliva is a clinical
sample that allows the isolation of Leishmania sp.
More than 1,000 species of phlebotomine sand flies have been described in the literature, many of which are vectors of Leishmania spp. In addition to the morphological similarities between some species groups, the occurrence of anomalies within one species may lead to erroneous description of new taxa. This study describes a case of bilateral anomaly in the number of spines in the gonostyle in a male of Evandromyia lenti. In this anomalous male, a 5th spine is present between the upper external spine and the lower external spine. The occurrence of such an anomaly can potentially result in misidentifications in this important group of insects.
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