Comparison of image processing techniques is critically important in deciding which algorithm, method, or metric to use for enhanced image assessment. Image fusion is a popular choice for various image enhancement applications such as overlay of two image products, refinement of image resolutions for alignment, and image combination for feature extraction and target recognition. Since image fusion is used in many geospatial and night vision applications, it is important to understand these techniques and provide a comparative study of the methods. In this paper, we conduct a comparative study on 12 selected image fusion metrics over six multiresolution image fusion algorithms for two different fusion schemes and input images with distortion. The analysis can be applied to different image combination algorithms, image processing methods, and over a different choice of metrics that are of use to an image processing expert. The paper relates the results to an image quality measurement based on power spectrum and correlation analysis and serves as a summary of many contemporary techniques for objective assessment of image fusion algorithms.
When will embryonic stem cells reach the clinic? The answer is simple -- not soon! To produce large quantities of homogeneous tissue for transplantation, without feeder layers, and with the appropriate recipient's immunological phenotype, is a significant scientific hindrance, although adult stem (ADS) cells provide an alternative, more ethically acceptable, source. The annual global 100 million human birth rate proposes umbilical cord blood (UCB) as the largest untouched stem cell source, with advantages of naive immune status and relatively unshortened telomere length. Here, we report the world's first reproducible production of cells expressing embryonic stem cell markers, - cord-blood-derived embryonic-like stem cells (CBEs). UCB, after elective birth by Caesarean section, has been separated by sequential immunomagnetic removal of nucleate granulocytes, erythrocytes and haemopoietic myeloid/lymphoid progenitors. After 7 days of high density culture in microflasks, (10(5) cells/ml, IMDM, FCS 10%, thrombopoietin 10 ng/ml, flt3-ligand 50 ng/ml, c-kit ligand 20 ng/ml). CBE colonies formed adherent to the substrata; these were maintained for 6 weeks, then were subcultured and continued for a minimum 13 weeks. CBEs were positive for TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, SSEA-4, SSEA-3 and Oct-4, but not SSEA-1, indicative of restriction in the human stem cell compartment. The CBEs were also microgravity--bioreactor cultured with hepatocyte growth medium (IMDM, FCS 10%, HGF 20 ng/ml, bFGF 10 ng/ml, EGF 10 ng/ml, c-kit ligand 10 ng/ml). After 4 weeks the cells were found to express characteristic hepatic markers, cytokeratin-18, alpha-foetoprotein and albumin. Thus, such CBEs are a viable human alternative from embryonic stem cells for stem cell research, without ethical constraint and with potential for clinical applications.
The inner cell mass (ICM) in blastocyst is the origin of all somatic and germ cells in mammals and pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in vitro. As the conserved principles between pig and human, here we performed comprehensive single‐cell RNA‐seq for porcine early embryos from oocyte to early blastocyst (EB). We show the specification of the ICM and trophectoderm in morula and the molecular signature of the precursors. We demonstrate the existence of naïve pluripotency signature in morula and ICM of EB, and the specific pluripotent genes and the activity of signalling pathways highlight the characteristics of the naïve pluripotency. We observe the absence of dosage compensation with respect to X‐chromosome (XC) in morula, and incomplete dosage compensation in the EB. However, the dynamics of dosage compensation may be independent of the expression of XIST induced XC inactivation. Our study describes molecular landmarks of embryogenesis in pig that will provide a better strategy for derivation of porcine PSCs and improve research in regenerative medicine.
Since C-peptide can only be derived from de novo synthesis and processing of pre-proinsulin mRNA and protein, we conclude that these results are the first demonstration that human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells can be engineered to engage in de novo synthesis of insulin.
Pathological mechanisms of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remain largely unexplored. Effective treatment of PAH remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to discover the underlying mechanism of PAH through functional metabolomics and to help develop new strategies for prevention and treatment of PAH.Metabolomic profiling of plasma in patients with idiopathic PAH was evaluated through HPLC-MS, with spermine identified to be the most significant and validated in another independent cohort. The roles of spermine and spermine synthase (SMS) were examined in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and rodent models of pulmonary hypertension.Using targeted metabolomics, plasma spermine levels were found to be higher in patients with idiopathic PAH compared to healthy controls. Spermine administration promoted proliferation and migration of PASMCs and exacerbated vascular remodelling in rodent models of pulmonary hypertension. The spermine-mediated deteriorative effect can be attributed to a corresponding upregulation of its synthase (SMS) in the pathological process. Inhibition of SMS in vitro suppressed platelet-derived growth factor-BB–mediated proliferation of PASMCs, and in vivo attenuated monocrotaline-mediated pulmonary hypertension in rats.Plasma spermine promotes pulmonary vascular remodelling. Inhibiting spermine synthesis could be a therapeutic strategy for PAH.
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