Extremely stretchable self‐healing strain sensors based on conductive hydrogels are successfully fabricated. The strain sensor can achieve autonomic self‐heal electrically and mechanically under ambient conditions, and can sustain extreme elastic strain (1000%) with high gauge factor of 1.51. Furthermore, the strain sensors have good response, signal stability, and repeatability under various human motion detections.
Antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) has a one-dimensional (1D) crystal structure comprising of covalently bonded (Sb4Se6)n ribbons stacking together through van der Waals force. This special structure results in anisotropic optical and electrical properties. Currently, the photovoltaic device performance is dominated by the grain orientation in the Sb2Se3 thin film absorbers. Effective approaches to enhance the carrier collection and overall power-conversion efficiency are urgently required. Here, we report the construction of Sb2Se3 solar cells with high-quality Sb2Se3 nanorod arrays absorber along the  direction, which is beneficial for sun-light absorption and charge carrier extraction. An efficiency of 9.2%, which is the highest value reported so far for this type of solar cells, is achieved by junction interface engineering. Our cell design provides an approach to further improve the efficiency of Sb2Se3-based solar cells.
Convolutional neural networks have been widely deployed in various application scenarios. In order to extend the applications' boundaries to some accuracy-crucial domains, researchers have been investigating approaches to boost accuracy through either deeper or wider network structures, which brings with them the exponential increment of the computational and storage cost, delaying the responding time.In this paper, we propose a general training framework named self distillation, which notably enhances the performance (accuracy) of convolutional neural networks through shrinking the size of the network rather than aggrandizing it. Different from traditional knowledge distillation -a knowledge transformation methodology among networks, which forces student neural networks to approximate the softmax layer outputs of pre-trained teacher neural networks, the proposed self distillation framework distills knowledge within network itself. The networks are firstly divided into several sections. Then the knowledge in the deeper portion of the networks is squeezed into the shallow ones. Experiments further prove the generalization of the proposed self distillation framework: enhancement of accuracy at average level is 2.65%, varying from 0.61% in ResNeXt as minimum to 4.07% in VGG19 as maximum. In addition, it can also provide flexibility of depth-wise scalable inference on resource-limited edge devices. Our codes will be released on github soon.
A smart window that dynamically modulates light transmittance is crucial for building energy efficiently, and promising for on‐demand optical devices. The rapid development of technology brings out different categories that have fundamentally different transmittance modulation mechanisms, including the electro‐, thermo‐, mechano‐, and photochromic smart windows. In this review, recent progress in smart windows of each category is overviewed. The strategies for each smart window are outlined with particular focus on functional materials, device design, and performance enhancement. The advantages and disadvantages of each category are summarized, followed by a discussion of emerging technologies such as dual stimuli triggered smart window and integrated devices toward multifunctionality. These multifunctional devices combine smart window technology with, for example, solar cells, triboelectric nanogenerators, actuators, energy storage devices, and electrothermal devices. Lastly, a perspective is provided on the future development of smart windows.
theoretical and practical aspects of supercapacitors in recent years.  Still, supercapacitors with more functionality and novel features are being sought to extend their application range. For example, fl exible, stretchable, and wearable supercapacitors have been developed to meet the requirements of portable and wearable electronics.  It would be highly attractive to integrate both an energy-storage and an electrochromism functionality into one device for multiple applications. Such device could be used not only for energy-storage smart windows, which can store energy by charging the window and adjusting the lighting and heating of the building, [ 11,12 ] but also for sensing variations in the level of stored energy and being able to respond to the variations in a noticeable and predictable manner.  As a key component of these smart devices, the transparent electrodes used not only need to be highly transparent but also highly conductive to simultaneously meet the needs of charging/discharging under high current density conditions and that of fast coloration switching speeds. However, the most commonly used transparent conducting electrodes are indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass, [ 11,16 ] fl uorine doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass, [ 13,15 ] poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), [ 12 ] and carbon nanotubes. [ 14 ] The sheet resistance of these transparent conducting electrodes is in the range of tens to hundreds of Ω per square, which could hinder the device charging/discharging process and may lead to the color changes lagging behind the changes in the stored energy, especially under high current densities. In addition, ITO and FTO as transparent electrodes are unsuitable for fl exible electronics applications because of their brittleness and high cost of the preparation procedure.  Therefore, it is very important to design an electrode with a low electrical resistance and a high optical transmittance for smart energystorage device applications.A variety of fl exible transparent electrodes have been investigated as low-cost ITO substitutes, including conducting polymers, [ 20 ] carbon nanotubes (CNTs), [ 21 ] graphene, [ 22 ] metal nanowires, [ 23,24 ] and metal grids.  Among these fl exible Silver grids are attractive for replacing indium tin oxide as fl exible transparent conductors. This work aims to improve the electrochemical stability of silverbased transparent conductors. A silver grid/PEDOT:PSS hybrid fi lm with high conductivity and excellent stability is successfully fabricated. Its functionality for fl exible electrochromic applications is demonstrated by coating one layer of WO 3 nanoparticles on the silver grid/PEDOT:PSS hybrid fi lm. This hybrid structure presents a large optical modulation of 81.9% at 633 nm, fast switching, and high coloration effi ciency (124.5 cm 2 C −1 ). More importantly, an excellent electrochemical cycling stability (sustaining 79.1% of their initial transmittance modulation a...
Efficient solar evaporation plays an indispensable role in nature as well as the industry process. However, the traditional evaporation process depends on the total temperature increase of bulk water. Recently, localized heating at the air-water interface has been demonstrated as a potential strategy for the improvement of solar evaporation. Here, we show that the carbon-black-based superhydrophobic gauze was able to float on the surface of water and selectively heat the surface water under irradiation, resulting in an enhanced evaporation rate. The fabrication process of the superhydrophobic black gauze was low-cost, scalable, and easy-to-prepare. Control experiments were conducted under different light intensities, and the results proved that the floating black gauze achieved an evaporation rate 2-3 times higher than that of the traditional process. A higher temperature of the surface water was observed in the floating gauze group, revealing a main reason for the evaporation enhancement. Furthermore, the self-cleaning ability of the superhydrophobic black gauze enabled a convenient recycling and reusing process toward practical application. The present material may open a new avenue for application of the superhydrophobic substrate and meet extensive requirements in the fields related to solar evaporation.
Supercapacitors can deliver high‐power density and long cycle stability, but the limited energy density due to poor electronic and ionic conductivity of the supercapacitor electrode has been a bottleneck in many applications. A strategy to prepare microflower‐like NiMn‐layered double hydroxides (LDH) with sulfidation is delineated to reduce the charge transfer resistance of supercapacitor electrode and realize faster reversible redox reactions with notably enhanced specific capacitance. The incorporation of graphite oxide (GO) in NiMn LDH during sulfidation leads to simultaneous reduction of GO with enhanced conductivity, lessened defects, and doping of S into the graphitic structure. Cycling stability of the sulfidized composite electrode is enhanced due to the alleviation of phase transformation during electrochemical cycling test. As a result, this sulfidation product of LDH/GO (or LDHGOS) can reach a high‐specific capacitance of 2246.63 F g−1 at a current density of 1 A g−1, and a capacitance of 1670.83 F g−1 is retained at a high‐current density of 10 A g−1, exhibiting an outstanding capacitance and rate performance. The cycling retention of the LDHGOS electrode is also extended to ≈ 67% after 1500 cycles compared to only ≈44% of the pristine NiMn LDH.
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