In additional to tumor-nodes-metastasis (TNM) staging system, patient sex and age, tumor location, cell type, and differentiation were independent prognostic factors. We recommend incorporation of these factors to subclassify lung cancer patients.
BackgroundCervical cancer is the most common cancer experienced by women worldwide; however, screening techniques are very effective for reducing the risk of death. The national cervical cancer screening program was implemented in Taiwan in 1995. The objective of this study was to examine and provide evidence of the cervical cancer mortality trends for the periods before and after the screening program was implemented.MethodsData from 1981 to 2010 of the causes of death registered were obtained from the Department of Health, Taiwan. Age-standardized mortality rates, age-specific rates, and age-period-cohort models that employed the sequential method were used to assess temporal changes that occurred between 1981 and 2010, with 1995 used as the separating year.ResultsThe results showed that for both time periods of 1981 to 1995 and 1996 to 2010, age and period had significant effects, whereas the birth cohort effects were insignificant. For patients between 80 and 84 years of age, the mortality rate for 1981 to 1995 and 1996 to 2010 was 48.34 and 68.08. The cervical cancer mortality rate for 1996 to 2010 was 1.0 for patients between 75 and 79 years of age and 1.4 for patients between 80 and 84 years of age compared to that for 1981 to 1995. Regarding the period effect, the mortality trend decreased 2-fold from 1996 to 2010.ConclusionsThe results of this study indicate a decline in cervical cancer mortality trends after the screening program involving Papanicolaou tests was implemented in 1995. However, the positive effects of the screening program were not observed in elderly women because of treatment delays during the initial implementation of the screening program.
Changes in carbohydrates on the cell surface are associated with tumor malignancy. The mucin-type core 2 b-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C2GnT-M) is highly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and catalyses the formation of core 2, core 4, and blood group I branches on O-glycans. In the present study, we evaluated the role of C2GnT-M in colorectal cancer. C2GnT-M downexpression was observed in 73.6% of the primary tumors from colorectal cancer patients (39 of 53) analysed by cancer profiling array. Consistently, the majority of colon cancer cell lines and primary colon tumors expressed lower levels of C2GnT-M than did normal colon tissues by RT-PCR. HCT116 cells stably transfected with C2GnT-M inhibited expression of the core 1 structure, Galb1,3GalNAca1-Ser/Thr, on the cell surface. Moreover, C2GnT-M expression suppressed cell adhesion, motility, and invasion as well as colony formation ability. The growth of C2GnT-M-transfected HCT116 and SW480 cells was dramatically suppressed, and the cell death induced by C2GnT-M was demonstrated by an increase in the annexin V-positive cells. Interestingly, C2GnT-M inhibited cell adhesion to collagen IV and fibronectin, and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin, indicating that the changes in cancer behavior may be partly mediated by integrin-signaling pathways. Tumor growth in vivo was also significantly suppressed by C2GnT-M in the xenografts of nude mice. These results demonstrate that C2GnT-M is frequently downregulated in colorectal cancer and suppresses colon cancer cell growth.
The utilization of layer-by-layer
composite nanoparticles fabricated from zein and hyaluronic acid (HA)
for the codelivery of curcumin and quercetagetin was investigated.
A combination of hydrophobic effects and hydrogen bonding was responsible
for the interaction of zein with both curcumin and quercetagetin inside
the nanoparticles. Electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding were
mainly responsible for the layer-by-layer deposition of hyaluronic
acid on the surfaces of the nanoparticles. The secondary structure
of zein was altered by the presence of the two nutraceuticals and
HA. The optimized nanoparticle formulation contained relatively small
particles (d = 231.2 nm) that were anionic (ζ
= −30.5 mV). The entrapment efficiency and loading capacity
were 69.8 and 2.5% for curcumin and 90.3 and 3.5% for quercetagetin,
respectively. Interestingly, the morphology of the nanoparticles depended
on their composition. In particular, they changed from coated nanoparticles
to nanoparticle-filled microgels as the level of HA increased. The
nanoparticles were effective at reducing light and thermal degradation
of the two encapsulated nutraceuticals and remained physically stable
throughout 6 months of long-term storage. In addition, the nanoparticles
were shown to slowly release the nutraceuticals under simulated gastrointestinal
tract conditions, which may help improve their oral bioavailability.
In summary, we have shown that layer-by-layer composite nanoparticles
based on zein and HA are an effective codelivery system for two bioactive
BackgroundIdiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) may play a role in early-stage systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The incidence of SLE in patients with ITP and the potential relationship between them is still unclear. This study was performed to provide epidemiological evidence regarding the relationship between ITP and SLE occurrence.MethodsIn this population-based retrospective cohort study, the risk of SLE was analysed in a cohort of patients newly diagnosed with ITP between 2000 and 2013. Controls were selected at a 1:2 ratio through propensity score matching (PSM) using the greedy algorithm. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyse the association between ITP and SLE incidence. There were four different Cox regression models, and the sensitivity analyses were implemented to evaluate the HR of SLE after exposure with ITP.ResultsIn the age-matched and sex-matched ITP and non-ITP cohort, the average follow-up time was about 80 months in this study. There were 34 (4.70%) and 27 (0.19%) incident cases of SLE in ITP and non-ITP group. The incidence rates were 62.0 (95% CI 44.3 to 86.8) and 2.10 (95% CI 1.44 to 3.06), respectively. The adjusted HR of incidental SLE in the ITP group was 25.1 (95% CI 13.7 to 46.0). The other risk factors for SLE were female sex and Sjogren’s syndrome. After PSM, the incidence rate and Kaplan-Meir curves of SLE were consistent with the results for the age-matched and sex-matched population, the HR 17.4 (95% CI 5.28 to 57.4) was estimated by conditional Cox model.ConclusionThis cohort study demonstrated that patients with ITP have a higher risk of SLE. Clinically, patients with ITP should be monitored for incidental lupus.
The prevalence and incidence rates of psoriatic disease, especially PsA, were increasing in Taiwan. The medication pattern showed an increase in DMARD and biologics, while use of topical therapies decreased.
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