Thirty-nine fungal metabolites 1−39, including two new alkaloids, 12β-hydroxy-13α-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6) and 3-hydroxyfumiquinazoline A (16), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus f umigatus LN-4, an endophytic fungus isolated from the stem bark of Melia azedarach. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis (mass spectrometry and one-and two-dimensional NMR experiments) and by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature. These isolated compounds were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activities against some phytopathogenic fungi, toxicity against brine shrimps, and antifeedant activities against armyworm larvae (Mythimna separata Walker). Among them, sixteen compounds showed potent antifungal activities against phytopathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, and Gibberella saubinettii), and four of them, 12β-hydroxy-13α-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6), fumitremorgin B (7), verruculogen (8), and helvolic acid (39), exhibited antifungal activities with MIC values of 6.25−50 μg/ mL, which were comparable to the two positive controls carbendazim and hymexazol. In addition, of eighteen that exerted moderate lethality toward brine shrimps, compounds 7 and 8 both showed significant toxicities with median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) values of 13.6 and 15.8 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, among nine metabolites that were found to possess antifeedant activity against armyworm larvae, compounds 7 and 8 gave the best activity with antifeedant indexes (AFI) of 50.0% and 55.0%, respectively. Structure−activity relationships of the metabolites were also discussed.
Dihydro-Beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenoids are a structurally diverse class of natural products based on tricyclic 5,11-epoxy-5Beta,10alpha-eudesman-4-(14)-ene skeleton. Between January 1990 and June 2006, 462 new dihydro-Beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenoids of 74 structural types have been isolated from about 64 species of Celastraceae, 3 species of Hippocrateaceae and one species of Lamiaceae. The present review covers the chemical and biological activity research of dihydro-Beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenoids in the past 16 years. The chemical research includes structural classification into sesquiterpene polyesters and macrolide sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids, synthesis of dihydro-Beta-agarofuran as well as extraction, isolation and purification methods. The biological activity research includes activities such as multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity, HIV inhibition, cytotoxicity, antitumor activity, antifeedant activity and insecticidal activity with some insights to their modes of actions.
Two new metabolites, an α-pyridone derivative, 3-hydroxy-2-methoxy-5-methylpyridin-2(1H)-one (1), and a ceramide derivative, 3-hydroxy-N-(1-hydroxy-3-methylpentan-2-yl)-5-oxohexanamide (2), and a new natural product, 3-hydroxy-N-(1-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-yl)-5-oxohexanamide (3), along with 15 known compounds including chaetoglobosin C (7) and chaetoglobosin F (8) were isolated from the solid culture of the endophytic fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea KJ-1, collected from the stems of white cedar (Melia azedarach L). The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR experiments and by mass spectrometric measurements), and the structure of 1 was confirmed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. These metabolites were evaluated in vitro for antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxicity activities. Pycnophorin (4) significantly inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis and Staphyloccocus aureus with equal minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 25 μM. Stemphyperylenol (5) displayed a potent antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Alternaria solani with MIC of 1.57 μM comparable to the commonly used fungicide carbendazim. Both altenusin (9) and djalonensone (10) showed markedly DPPH radical scavenging activities. In addition, stemphyperylenol (5) and altenuene (6) exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HCT116 cancer cell line with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 3.13 μM in comparison with the positive control etoposide (IC50 = 2.13 μM). This is the first report of the isolation of these compounds from the endophytic B. dothidea.
A facile and sensitive mass spectrometric method has been developed for the dereplication of natural products. The method provides information about the molecular formula and substructure of a precursor molecule and its fragments, which are invaluable aids in dereplication of natural products at their early stages of purification and characterization. Collision-induced MS/MS technique is used to fragment a precursor ion into several product ions, and individual product ions are selected and subjected to collision-induced MS/MS/MS analysis. This method enables the identification of the fragmentation pathway of a precursor molecule from its first-generation fragments (MS/MS), through to the nth generation product ions (MSn). It also allows for the identification of the corresponding neutral products released (neutral losses). Elements used in the molecular formula analysis include C, H, N, O, and S, as most natural products are constituted by these five elements. High-resolution mass separation and accurate mass measurements afforded the unique identification of molecular formula of small neutral products. Through sequential add-up of the molecular formulas of the small neutral products, the molecular formula of the precursor ion and its productions were uniquely determined. The molecular formula of the precursor molecule was then reversely used to identify or confirm the molecular formula of the neutral products and that of the productions. The molecular formula of the neutral fragments allowed for the identification of substructures, leading to a rapid and efficient characterization of precursor natural product. The method was applied to paclitaxel (C47H51NO14; 853 amu) to identify its molecular formula and its substructures, and to characterize its potential fragmentation pathways. The method was further validated by correctly identifying the molecular formula of minocycline (C23H27N3O7; 457 amu) and piperacillin (C23H27N5O7S; 517 amu).
In preceding studies, cultivation of Chaetomium globosum, an endophytic fungus in Ginkgo biloba, produced five cytochalasan mycotoxins, chaetoglobosins A, G, V, Vb, and C (1-5), in three media. In the present work, five known chaetoglobosins, C, E, F, Fex, and 20-dihydrochaetoglobosin A (5-9), together with the four known compounds (11-14), were isolated from the MeOH extracts of the solid culture of the same endophyte. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Treatment of chaetoglobosin F (7) with (diethylamino)sulfur trifluoride (DAST) in dichloromethane afforded an unexpected fluorinated chaetoglobosin, named chaetoglobosin Fa (10), containing an oxolane ring between C-20 and C-23. The phytotoxic effects of compounds 1, 3-8, and 10 were assayed on radish seedlings; some of these compounds (1, 3, and 6-8) significantly inhibited the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus) seedlings with inhibitory rates of >60% at a concentration of 50 ppm, which was comparable or superior to the positive control, glyphosate. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against HCT116 human colon cancer cells were also tested, and compounds 1 and 8-10 showed remarkable cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 3.15 to 8.44 μM, in comparison to the positive drug etoposide (IC50 = 2.13 μM). The epoxide ring between C-6 and C-7 or the double bond at C-6(12) led to a drastically increased cytotoxicity, and chaetoglobosin Fa (10) displayed a markedly increased cytotoxicity but decreased phytotoxicity.
The [2+2] cycloaddition is a versatile strategy for the synthesis of strained cyclobutenes of high synthetic value. In this study, two efficient intermolecular [2+2] cycloadditions between two different types of chloroalkynes and unactivated alkene are realized with gold catalysis. Of significance is that the reaction works with challenging monosubstituted unactivated alkenes, which is unprecedented in gold catalysis and scarcely documented in other metal-catalyzed/promoted reactions; moreover, the reaction exhibits excellent regioselectivities, which are much better than those reported in literature. With 1,2-disubstituted unactivated alkenes, the reaction is largely stereospecific. The cyclobutene products can be prepared in nearly gram scale and readily undergo further reactions including various cross-coupling reactions using the C(sp)-Cl and/or C(sp)-SPh bond, which in turn substantially broaden the scope of accessible cyclobutenes and enhance the synthetic utility of this bimolecular reaction.
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