Metabolic syndrome is defined as a cluster of glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity with insulin resistance as the source of pathogenesis. Although several different combinations of criteria have been used to define metabolic syndrome, a recently published consensus recommends the use of ethnic-specific criteria, including waist circumference as an indicator of central obesity, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol as indicators of dyslipidemia, and blood pressure greater than 130/85 mmHg. The definition of dysglycemia, and whether central obesity and insulin resistance are essential components remain controversial. Regardless of the definition, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in Western and Asian countries, particularly in developing areas undergoing rapid socioenvironmental changes. Numerous clinical trials have shown that metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus and all-cause mortality. Therefore, metabolic syndrome might be useful as a practical tool to predict these two major metabolic disorders. Comprehensive management of risk factors is very important to the improvement of personal and public health. However, recent studies have focused on the role metabolic syndrome plays as a risk factor for CVD; its importance in the prediction of incident diabetes is frequently overlooked. In the present review, we summarize the known evidence supporting metabolic syndrome as a predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD. Additionally, we suggest how metabolic syndrome might be useful in clinical practice, especially for the prediction of diabetes. (J Diabetes Invest,
Entrepreneurs have been traditionally epitomized as rugged individuals garnering creative forces of innovation and technology. Applying this traditional, limited, and narrow view of entrepreneurship to ethnic firm creation and growth is to ignore or discount core cultural values of the ethnic contexts in which these firms operate. It is no longer possible to depend solely on human capital theory and household characteristic descriptions to understand the complex and interdependent relationships between the ethnic-owning family, its firm, and the community context in which the firm operates. This paper addresses the complex dynamic of ethnic firms with three purposes: (a) to provide a cultural context for the three ethnic groups composing the National Minority Business Owner Study; (b) to extend the Sustainable Family Business Theory, a dynamic, behaviorally-based, multi-dimensional family firm theory, by clarifying how it accommodates ethnic firm complexities within their cultural context, and (c) to derive implications for research, education and consulting with worldwide applications.
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) plays a critical role in negatively regulating T cell responses and has also been implicated in the development and function of natural FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. CTLA-4–deficient mice develop fatal, early onset lymphoproliferative disease. However, chimeric mice containing both CTLA-4–deficient and –sufficient bone marrow (BM)–derived cells do not develop disease, indicating that CTLA-4 can act in trans to maintain T cell self-tolerance. Using genetically mixed blastocyst and BM chimaeras as well as in vivo T cell transfer systems, we demonstrate that in vivo regulation of Ctla4−/− T cells in trans by CTLA-4–sufficient T cells is a reversible process that requires the persistent presence of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells with a diverse TCR repertoire. Based on gene expression studies, the regulatory T cells do not appear to act directly on T cells, suggesting they may instead modulate the stimulatory activities of antigen-presenting cells. These results demonstrate that CTLA-4 is absolutely required for FOXP3+ regulatory T cell function in vivo.
OBJECTIVE -The Internet is used worldwide as a communication tool. To improve the quality of diabetes control, we investigated the effectiveness of an Internet-based blood glucose monitoring system (IBGMS) on controlling the changes in HbA 1c levels.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -We conducted a randomized clinical trial involving 110 patients who visited the outpatient clinic at the Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital for 3 months. The study subjects were treated with IBGMS for 12 weeks, and the control group received the usual outpatient management over the same period. HbA 1c and other laboratory tests were performed twice, once at the beginning of the study and again at the end of the study.RESULTS -The test results from the beginning of the study established that there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to age, sex, diabetes duration, BMI, blood pressure, HbA 1c , and other laboratory data. On follow-up examination 12 weeks later, HbA 1c levels were significantly decreased from 7.59 to 6.94% within the intervention group (P Ͻ 0.001). At the end of the study, HbA 1c levels in the intervention group were significantly lower than in the control group after adjusting the baseline HbA 1c (6.94 vs. 7.62%; P Ͻ 0.001, respectively). Among patients with baseline HbA 1c Ͻ7.0%, the patients in the intervention group had lower HbA 1c than those in the control group (6.38 vs. 6.99%; P Ͻ 0.05). Among the patients with a baseline HbA 1c Ն7.0%, the difference between the two groups appeared more obvious: HbA 1c levels at the end of the study were 8.12%.CONCLUSIONS -This new IBGMS resulted in a significant reduction of HbA 1c during the study period. We propose that this IBGMS be used as a method for improving diabetes control. Diabetes Care 27:478 -483, 2004T he importance of tight blood glucose control for the subsequent prevention of diabetes complication is well established (1,2). In addition, improving glucose control will also reduce the enormous economic burden associated with the disease (3,4). Therefore, various strategies for diabetes management have been designed to improve the quality and efficiency of care for patients with diabetes. To promote adherence for patients and providers to follow practical guidelines, studies have been carried out to establish educational programs for patients and health care workers. Other studies, including giving feedback to the providers as well as programs that remind providers and their patients of these guidelines, have been experimented with (5-8). Recently, a small number of computer-based or electronic management systems have been reported to improve diabetes care (9 -11). However, many barriers are recognized in providing this care system into the community health care system (12,13). Diabetes care means managing vulnerable patients with chronic disease consistently in the outpatient setting. Chin et al. (13) reported that providers in health care centers indicated a need to enhance behavioral changes in diabetic patients to improve the health care de...
Increased susceptibility to infections, including tuberculosis (TB), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. Despite the clinical importance of this problem, little is known about how diabetes impairs protective immunity. We modeled this phenomenon by infecting acute (< or = 1 mo) or chronic (> or = 3 mo) diabetic mice with a low aerosol dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Erdman. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment of C57BL/6 mice, while another mouse strain and diabetes model were used to confirm key observations. Lungs from acute diabetic and euglycemic mice had similar bacterial burdens, cytokine expression profiles, and histopathology. In contrast, chronic diabetic mice had > 1 log higher bacterial burden and more inflammation in the lung compared with euglycemic mice. The expression of adaptive immunity was delayed in chronic diabetic mice, shown by reduced early production of IFN-gamma in the lung and by the presence of fewer Mtb antigen (ESAT-6)-responsive T cells compared with euglycemic mice within the first month of infection. However, after 2 months of TB disease proinflammatory cytokines levels were higher in chronic diabetic than euglycemic mice. Here we show that Mtb infection of STZ-treated mice provides a useful model to study the effects of hyperglycemia on immunity. Our data indicate that the initiation of adaptive immunity is impaired by chronic hyperglycemia, resulting in a higher steady-state burden of Mtb in the lung.
BackgroundTo determine whether the TyG index, a product of the levels of triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) might be a valuable marker for predicting future diabetes.MethodsA total of 5,354 nondiabetic subjects who had completed their follow-up visit for evaluating diabetes status were selected from a large cohort of middle-aged Koreans in the Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort study. The risk of diabetes was assessed according to the baseline TyG index, calculated as ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × FPG (mg/dL)/2]. The median follow-up period was 4.6 years.ResultsDuring the follow-up period, 420 subjects (7.8%) developed diabetes. The baseline values of the TyG index were significantly higher in these subjects compared with nondiabetic subjects (8.9±0.6 vs. 8.6±0.6; P<0.0001) and the incidence of diabetes increased in proportion to TyG index quartiles. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level, a family history of diabetes, smoking, alcohol drinking, education level and serum insulin level, the risk of diabetes onset was more than fourfold higher in the highest vs. the lowest quartile of the TyG index (relative risk, 4.095; 95% CI, 2.701–6.207). The predictive power of the TyG index was better than the triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio or the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance.ConclusionsThe TyG index, a simple measure reflecting insulin resistance, might be useful in identifying individuals at high risk of developing diabetes.
PurposeTo determine the potential associations between physical activity and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe illness from COVID-19 and COVID-19 related death using a nationwide cohort from South Korea.MethodsData regarding 212 768 Korean adults (age ≥20 years), who tested for SARS-CoV-2, from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020, were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service of South Korea and further linked with the national general health examination from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019 to assess physical activity levels. SARS-CoV-2 positivity, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death were the main outcomes. The observation period was between 1 January 2020 and 31 July 2020.ResultsOut of 76 395 participants who completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2, 2295 (3.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 446 (0.58%) had severe illness from COVID-19 and 45 (0.059%) died from COVID-19. Adults who engaged in both aerobic and muscle strengthening activities according to the 2018 physical activity guidelines had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.6% vs 3.1%; adjusted relative risk (aRR), 0.85; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), severe COVID-19 illness (0.35% vs 0.66%; aRR 0.42; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.91) and COVID-19 related death (0.02% vs 0.08%; aRR 0.24; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.99) than those who engaged in insufficient aerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Furthermore, the recommended range of metabolic equivalent task (MET; 500–1000 MET min/week) was associated with the maximum beneficial effect size for reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (aRR 0.78; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.92), severe COVID-19 illness (aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.90) and COVID-19 related death (aRR 0.17; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98). Similar patterns of association were observed in different sensitivity analyses.ConclusionAdults who engaged in the recommended levels of physical activity were associated with a decreased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death. Our findings suggest that engaging in physical activity has substantial public health value and demonstrates potential benefits to combat COVID-19.
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