Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor; its standard treatment includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with surgery. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has significantly improved the 5-year survival and limb salvage rates in osteosarcoma since the 1870s. The survival rate of patients with limb salvage was not inferior to that of amputees, and therefore, limb salvage has become the main surgical option for patients with osteosarcoma. The 5-year survival rate for osteosarcoma has plateaued. However, new advances in limb salvage therapy in osteosarcoma, including adjuvant chemotherapy, ablation techniques, bone transport techniques, and computer navigation techniques, are now available. This report summarizes the recent advances in limb salvage therapy for osteosarcoma over the past decade.
BackgroundAnaplasmosis is caused by obligate intracellular bacteria in the genus Anaplasma. These bacterial pathogens are transmitted by ticks and impact both human and animal health. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of Anaplasma spp. in ruminants sampled in Xinjiang, northwest China.MethodsA survey was performed in August 2012 in rural areas of six counties in Xinjiang province. A total of 250 blood samples from ruminants were collected and tested for the presence of Anaplasma spp. by PCR. Positive samples were genetically characterized based on the 16S rRNA and msp4 genes.ResultsThe results showed a high prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in ruminants, with at least three different Anaplasma species detected (A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis and A. ovis). The mean prevalence of single infection with each species was 17.6% (A. phagocytophilum), 4.8% (A. bovis) and 40.5% (A. ovis). Coinfection occurred in 20 (8.0%) animals. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum revealed a higher degree of genetic diversity for the latter. The results for A. ovis showed genotypic variation among geographic regions in China. In addition, a closely related isolate to the canine pathogen A. platys was identified in ruminants.ConclusionsThis survey revealed a high prevalence of Anaplasma sp. infections in sheep and cattle in the northwestern border regions of China, indicating the potential risk of transboundary disease.
Anaplasma spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that infect a wide variety of wild and domestic animals. These pathogens exhibit a high degree of biological diversity, broad geographical distribution, and represent a serious threat to veterinary and public health worldwide.ResultsA novel Anaplasma species was identified in Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (Ixodidae) in northwestern China and was molecularly characterized by comparison of 16S rRNA, gltA, and groEL gene sequences. Of the 414 samples tested, 24 (5.8%) were positive for this Anaplasma species. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene, this organism has been found to be closely related to and exhibit the highest sequence similarity with A. capra (99.8–99.9%) that was identified in goats and humans in northern China, but was distinct from other known Anaplasma species. Sequence analysis of the gltA and groEL genes revealed that this Anaplasma species was distinct from A. capra considering the lower sequence identity (88.6–88.7% for gltA and 90.6–91.0% for groEL) and a divergent phylogenetic position. Therefore, we described this Anaplasma species as A. capra-like bacteria.ConclusionsThe present study reports a potential novel Anaplasma species closely related to A. capra in H. qinghaiensis in northwestern China. The zoonotic potential of A. capra-like bacteria needs to be further determined.
A rapid immunochromatographic test strip has been developed for the detection of zearalenone (ZEN) residues in corn. For this purpose, a specific anti-ZEN monoclonal antibody (mAb), 4A3-F9, was obtained and identified. ZEN coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) via 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether was prepared as immunogen. The mAb showed low cross-reactivity with five ZEN analogues. Using an antibody preparation with a titer of ≥1:5.12 × 10(5), the cross-reactivity (CR) of the anti-ZEN monoclonal antibody with four of the analogues was <4%, except for zearalanone, which was 53.121%. The recovery rates of ZEN in spiked corn samples were in the range of 91.30-97.07% with coefficients of variation <5.32%. An immunochromatographic strip was developed using the specific anti-ZEN monoclonal antibody and applied to the screening of corn samples for ZEN residues. The test could be accomplished within 5-10 min. The sensitivity of the test strip in corn sample extract was confirmed to be 20 μg/kg by unaided visual assessment, and the IC50 was calculated as 3.4 ng/mL using a test strip reader. The test strip, analyzed by unaided visual assessment and strip reader, showed very good agreement with competitive indirect ELISA and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis for naturally contaminated corn samples.
A rapid immunochromatographic lateral flow test strip of competitive format has been developed for the specific determination of olaquindox (OLA) residues in pig urine and muscle tissues. The sensitivity of the test strip was found to be 1.58 ± 0.27 μg/kg and 1.70 ± 0.26 μg/kg of OLA in pig urine and muscle tissues, and the lower detection limit was 0.27 ± 0.08 μg/kg and 0.31 ± 0.07 μg/kg respectively. For negative pig urine and muscle samples spiked with 4, 12, and 36 μg/kg, the recovery range was 83.0-94.0% and 78.8-87.4% and the coefficient of variation scope [CV (%)] was 3.17-7.41% and 4.66-7.64% respectively. Parallel analysis of OLA samples from pig urine and muscle tissue showed comparable results from the test strip and HPLC. Each test requires 5-8 min, and the test strip can provide a useful screening method for quantitative, semiquantitative, or qualitative detection of OLA residues.
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