Pazopanib and sunitinib have similar efficacy, but the safety and quality-of-life profiles favor pazopanib. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals; COMPARZ ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00720941.).
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) represents the most prevalent internal modification in mammalian mRNAs. Despite its functional importance in various fundamental bioprocesses, the studies of m6A in cancer have been limited. Here we show that FTO, as an m6A demethylase, plays a critical oncogenic role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). FTO is highly expressed in AMLs with t(11q23)/MLL-rearrangements, t(15;17)/PML-RARA, FLT3-ITD and/or NPM1 mutations. FTO enhances leukemic oncogene-mediated cell transformation and leukemogenesis, and inhibits all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced AML cell differentiation, through regulating expression of targets such as ASB2 and RARA by reducing m6A levels in these mRNA transcripts. Collectively, our study demonstrates the functional importance of the m6A methylation and the corresponding proteins in cancer, and provides profound insights into leukemogensis and drug response.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer, whereas acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults. In general, ALL has a better prognosis than AML. To understand the distinct mechanisms in leukemogenesis between ALL and AML and to identify markers for diagnosis and treatment, we performed a large-scale genomewide microRNA (miRNA, miR) expression profiling assay and identified 27 miRNAs that are differentially expressed between ALL and AML. Among them, miR-128a and -128b are significantly overexpressed, whereas let-7b and miR-223 are significantly downregulated in ALL compared with AML. They are the most discriminatory miRNAs between ALL and AML. Using the expression signatures of a minimum of two of these miRNAs resulted in an accuracy rate of >95% in the diagnosis of ALL and AML. The differential expression patterns of these four miRNAs were validated further through large-scale real-time PCR on 98 acute leukemia samples covering most of the common cytogenetic subtypes, along with 10 normal control samples. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of miR-128 in ALL was at least partly associated with promoter hypomethylation and not with an amplification of its genomic locus. Taken together, we showed that expression signatures of as few as two miRNAs could accurately discriminate ALL from AML, and that epigenetic regulation might play an important role in the regulation of expression of miRNAs in acute leukemias. expression profiling ͉ lineage classification ͉ diagnosis ͉ prediction ͉ DNA copy number
VR-CAP was more effective than R-CHOP in patients with newly diagnosed mantle-cell lymphoma but at the cost of increased hematologic toxicity. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development and Millennium Pharmaceuticals; LYM-3002 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00722137.).
HOXA9, and MEIS1 have essential oncogenic roles in mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL)-rearranged leukaemia. Here we show that they are direct targets of miRNA-196b, a microRNA (miRNA) located adjacent to and co-expressed with HOXA9, in MLL-rearranged leukaemic cells. Forced expression of miR-196b significantly delays MLL-fusion-mediated leukemogenesis in primary bone marrow transplantation through suppressing Hoxa9/Meis1 expression. However, ectopic expression of miR-196b results in more aggressive leukaemic phenotypes and causes much faster leukemogenesis in secondary transplantation than MLL fusion alone, likely through the further repression of Fas expression, a proapoptotic gene downregulated in MLL-rearranged leukaemia. Overexpression of FAS significantly inhibits leukemogenesis and reverses miR-196b-mediated phenotypes. Targeting Hoxa9/Meis1 and Fas by miR-196b is probably also important for normal haematopoiesis. Thus, our results uncover a previously unappreciated miRNA-regulation mechanism by which a single miRNA may target both oncogenes and tumour suppressors, simultaneously, or, sequentially, in tumourigenesis and normal development per cell differentiation, indicating that miRNA regulation is much more complex than previously thought.
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