Gut microbiota are linked to chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis. Chemotherapy failure is the major cause of recurrence and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. Here, we investigated the contribution of gut microbiota to chemoresistance in patients with colorectal cancer. We found that Fusobacterium (F.) nucleatum was abundant in colorectal cancer tissues in patients with recurrence post chemotherapy, and was associated with patient clinicopathological characterisitcs. Furthermore, our bioinformatic and functional studies demonstrated that F. nucleatum promoted colorectal cancer resistance to chemotherapy. Mechanistically, F. nucleatum targeted TLR4 and MYD88 innate immune signaling and specific microRNAs to activate the autophagy pathway and alter colorectal cancer chemotherapeutic response. Thus, F. nucleatum orchestrates a molecular network of the Toll-like receptor, micro-RNAs, and autophagy to clinically, biologically, and mechanistically control colorectal cancer chemoresistance. Measuring and targeting F. nucleatum and its associated pathway will yield valuable insight into clinical management and may ameliorate colorectal cancer patient outcomes.
Emerging evidence has linked the gut microbiome to human obesity. We performed a metagenome-wide association study and serum metabolomics profiling in a cohort of lean and obese, young, Chinese individuals. We identified obesity-associated gut microbial species linked to changes in circulating metabolites. The abundance of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a glutamate-fermenting commensal, was markedly decreased in obese individuals and was inversely correlated with serum glutamate concentration. Consistently, gavage with B. thetaiotaomicron reduced plasma glutamate concentration and alleviated diet-induced body-weight gain and adiposity in mice. Furthermore, weight-loss intervention by bariatric surgery partially reversed obesity-associated microbial and metabolic alterations in obese individuals, including the decreased abundance of B. thetaiotaomicron and the elevated serum glutamate concentration. Our findings identify previously unknown links between intestinal microbiota alterations, circulating amino acids and obesity, suggesting that it may be possible to intervene in obesity by targeting the gut microbiota.
Antidiabetic medication may modulate the gut microbiota and thereby alter plasma and faecal bile acid (BA) composition, which may improve metabolic health. Here we show that treatment with Acarbose, but not Glipizide, increases the ratio between primary BAs and secondary BAs and plasma levels of unconjugated BAs in treatment-naive type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, which may beneficially affect metabolism. Acarbose increases the relative abundances of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the gut microbiota and depletes Bacteroides, thereby changing the relative abundance of microbial genes involved in BA metabolism. Treatment outcomes of Acarbose are dependent on gut microbiota compositions prior to treatment. Compared to patients with a gut microbiota dominated by Prevotella, those with a high abundance of Bacteroides exhibit more changes in plasma BAs and greater improvement in metabolic parameters after Acarbose treatment. Our work highlights the potential for stratification of T2D patients based on their gut microbiota prior to treatment.
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) play a role in carcinogenesis. However, the function of lncRNAs in human gastric cancer remains largely unknown. In this study, we identifi ed a novel lncRNA, GClnc1, which was upregulated and associated with tumorigenesis, tumor size, metastasis, and poor prognosis in gastric cancer. GClnc1 affected gastric cancer cell proliferation, invasiveness, and metastasis in multiple gastric cancer models. Mechanistically, GClnc1 bound WDR5 (a key component of histone methyltransferase complex) and KAT2A histone acetyltransferase, acted as a modular scaffold of WDR5 and KAT2A complexes, coordinated their localization, specifi ed the histone modifi cation pattern on the target genes, including SOD2 , and consequently altered gastric cancer cell biology. Thus, GClnc1 is mechanistically, functionally, and clinically oncogenic in gastric cancer. Targeting GClnc1 and its pathway may be meaningful for treating patients with gastric cancer.
SIGNIFICANCE:This report documents a novel lncRNA, GClnc1, which may act as a scaffold to recruit the WDR5 and KAT2A complex and modify the transcription of target genes. This study reveals that GClnc1 is an oncogenic lncRNA in human gastric cancer. Cancer Discov; 6(7); 784-801.
OBJECTIVEThe two major classes of antidiabetic drugs, sulfonylureas and metformin, may differentially affect macrovascular complications and mortality in diabetic patients. We compared the long-term effects of glipizide and metformin on the major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients who had a history of coronary artery disease (CAD).RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSThis study is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 304 type 2 diabetic patients with CAD, mean age = 63.3 years (range, 36–80 years), were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either glipizide (30 mg daily) or metformin (1.5 g daily) for 3 years. The primary end points were times to the composite of recurrent cardiovascular events, including death from a cardiovascular cause, death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or arterial revascularization.RESULTSAt the end of study drug administration, both groups achieved a significant decrease in the level of glycated hemoglobin (7.1% in the glipizide group and 7.0% in the metformin group). At a median follow-up of 5.0 years, 91 participants had developed 103 primary end points. Intention-to-treat analysis showed an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.54 (95% CI 0.30–0.90; P = 0.026) for the composites of cardiovascular events among the patients that received metformin, compared with glipizide. The secondary end points and adverse events were not significantly different between the two groups.CONCLUSIONSTreatment with metformin for 3 years substantially reduced major cardiovascular events in a median follow-up of 5.0 years compared with glipizide. Our results indicated a potential benefit of metformin therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients.
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) to metastatic disease may involve the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Results: STAT3 may regulate N-cadherin, vimentin, and ZEB1 expressions. STAT3-induced cell invasion and down-regulation of E-cadherin may depend on ZEB1. Conclusion: STAT3 may mediate CRC EMT progression and ZEB1 expression. Activation of STAT3 and ZEB1 proteins may contribute to worse prognosis in CRC patients. Significance: Our data may provide potential targets to prevent and/or treat CRC invasion.
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