Liver ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is a severe complication of liver surgery. Moreover, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients are particularly vulnerable to IR injury, with higher rates of postoperative morbidity and mortality after liver surgeries. Our previous study found that renalase (RNLS) was highly sensitive and responsive to oxidative stress, which may be a promising biomarker for the evaluation of the severity of liver IR injury. However, the role of RNLS in liver IR injury remains unclear. In the present study, we intensively explored the role and mechanism of RNLS in fatty liver IR injury in vivo and in vitro. C57BL/6 mice were divided into 2 groups feeding with high-fat diet (HFD) and control diet (CD), respectively. After 20 weeks’ feeding, they were suffered from portal triad blockage and reflow to induce liver IR injury. Additionally, oleic acid (OA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) were used in vitro to induce steatotic hepatocytes and to simulate ROS burst and mimic cellular oxidative stress following portal triad blockage and reflow, respectively. Our data showed that RNLS was downregulated in fatty livers, and RNLS administration effectively attenuated IR injury by reducing ROS production and improving mitochondrial function through activating SIRT1. Additionally, the downregulation of RNLS in the fatty liver was mediated by a decrease of signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) expression under HFD conditions. These findings make RNLS a promising therapeutic strategy for the attenuation of liver IR injury.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the principal causes of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. The high incidence of liver metastasis is the leading risk factor of mortality in patients with CRC, and the mechanisms of CRC liver metastasis are poorly understood. In the present study, 7 datasets, including 3 gene expression profile datasets and 4 microRNA (miRNA) expression profile datasets were downloaded from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to identify potential key genes and miRNAs, which may be candidate biomarkers for CRC liver metastasis. Differentially expressed (DE) genes (DEGs) and DE miRNAs of primary CRC tumor tissues and liver metastatic CRC tumor tissues were selected using the GEO2R tool. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genome pathway enrichment analyses were conducted using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery online database. Furthermore, Cytoscape with cytoHubba and the Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plug-in were used to visualize a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network for these DEGs, and to screen hub genes and gene modules in the PPI network. In addition, the online databases, TargetScan, miRanda, PITA, miRWalk and miRDB, were used to identify the target genes of the DE miRNAs. In the present study, 141 DEGs (97 upregulated and 44 downregulated) and 3 DE miRNAs (2 upregulated and 1 downregulated) were screened from the 3 gene expression microarray datasets and 4 miRNA expression microarray datasets, respectively. In total, 10 hub genes with a high degree of connectivity were selected from the PPI network, including albumin (ALB), coagulation factor II (F2), thrombin, apolipoprotein H (APOH), serpin family C member 1 (SERPINC1), apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), α-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor (AMBP), apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3), plasminogen (PLG), α-2 HS glycoprotein (AHSG) and apolipoprotein B (APOB). The most important module was detected in the PPI network using the MCODE plug-in. A total of 20 DEGs were identified to be potential target genes of these DE miRNAs, and novel miRNA-DEGs regulatory axes were constructed. In vitro experiments were performed to demonstrate that miR-885 promoted CRC cell migration by, at least partially, decreasing the expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5). In conclusion, by using integrated bioinformatics analysis and in vitro experiments, key candidate genes were identified and novel miRNA-mRNA regulatory axes in CRC liver metastasis were constructed, which may improve understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC liver metastasis.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths due to tumor invasiveness, frequent intrahepatic dissemination and extrahepatic metastasis. However, the genes and signaling pathways that are involved remain incompletely understood. In this study, weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to jointly analyze clinical information and gene expression data to identify key genes associated with clinical features. Through the bioinformatic analysis, the yellow module and microvascular invasion (MVI) were found to be highly associated (r=0.41) by Pearson's correlation analysis, and 20 hub genes were identified with both high gene significance (GS) and high module membership (MM) in the yellow module. Among these genes, FoxM1 and KIAA0101 were upregulated in HCC with MVI and were significantly positively correlated in HCC samples, indicating a novel regulatory network in HCC microvascular invasion. Moreover, in vitro experiments demonstrated that KIAA0101 is a direct target of FoxM1 and that KIAA0101 is required for the FoxM1-induced promotion of HCC cell invasion and migration. In addition, the FoxM1-KIAA0101 axis promotes HCC metastasis by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In summary, KIAA0101 is a novel target of FoxM1 and contributes to HCC metastasis by activating EMT. The FoxM1-KIAA0101 axis might be applied as a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC.
Liver ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is a common phenomenon after liver resection and transplantation, which often results in liver graft dysfunction such as delayed graft function and primary nonfunction. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which coordinates cell growth and metabolism through sensing environmental inputs under physiological or pathological conditions, involved in the pathophysiological process of IR injury. In this review, we mainly present current evidence of the beneficial role of mTOR in modulating inflammation and autophagy under liver IR to provide some evidence for the potential therapies for liver IR injury.
Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious complication in clinical practice. However, no efficient biomarkers are available for the evaluation of the severity of I/R injury. Recently, renalase has been reported to be implicated in the I/R injury of various organs. This protein is secreted into the blood in response to increased oxidative stress. To investigate the responsiveness of renalase to oxidative stress, we examined the changes of renalase in cell and mouse models. We observed a significant increase of renalase expression in HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner when treated with H2O2. Renalase expression also increased significantly in liver tissues that underwent the hepatic I/R process. The increased renalase levels could be efficiently suppressed by antioxidants in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, serum renalase levels were significantly increased in the mouse models and also efficiently suppressed by antioxidants treatment. The variation trends are consistent between renalase and liver enzymes in the mouse models. In conclusion, renalase is highly sensitive and responsive to oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, renalase can be detected in the blood. These properties make renalase a highly promising biomarker for the evaluation of the severity of hepatic I/R injury.
Dyslipidemia, characterized by metabolic abnormalities, has become an important participant in colorectal cancer (CRC). Dyslipidemia aggravates intestinal inflammation, destroys the protective mucous layer, and disrupts the balance between injury and recovery. On the other hand, antioxidants induced by oxidative stress enhance glycolysis to maintain the acquisition of ATP allowing epithelial cells with damaged genomes to survive. In the repetitive phase of colitis, survival factors enable these epithelial cells to continuously proliferate. The main purpose is to restore and rebuild damaged mucosa, mainly aiming to recover mucosal damage and reconstruct mucosa, but it is also implicated in the occurrence and malignancy of CRC. The metabolic reprogramming of aerobic glycolysis and lipid synthesis enables these transformed epithelial cells to convert raw carbohydrate and amino acid substrates, thereby synthesizing protein and phospholipid biomass. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase, responsible for the fatty acid desaturation, improves the fluidity and permeability of cell membranes, which is one of the key factors affecting metabolic rate. In response to available fat, tumor cells reprogram their metabolism to better plunder energy-rich lipids and rapidly scavenge these lipids through continuous proliferation. However, lipid metabolic disorders inhibit the function of immune-infiltrating cells in the tumor microenvironment through the cross-talk between tumor cells and immunosuppressive stromal cells, thereby providing opportunities for tumor progress. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and lipid-lowering drugs can decrease the formation of aberrant crypt foci, lower the burden of the adenomatous polyp, and reduce the incidence of CRC. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of dyslipidemia on tumorigenesis and tumor progression and a development prospect of lipid disorders on tumor immunity.
Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious complication in patients who have undergone hepatic surgery such as orthotopic liver transplantation and partial hepatectomy. Recently, a new cytoprotective agent, ursodeoxycholyl lysophosphatidylethanolamide (UDCA-LPE), was reported to protect against hepatic I/R injury. However, the protective mechanism of UDCA-LPE is not fully understood. Therefore, we conducted this study to explore its underlying mechanism. We used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze the liver lipid metabolism changes in mice during I/R. KEGG enrichment indicated that UDCA-LPE is likely to exert its protective role by regulating fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Further analysis found that UDCA-LPE significantly increased the ratio of oleic acid (OA) to palmitic acid (PA). We found that mice pretreated with OA improved tolerance to hepatic I/R injury. In addition, the phosphorylation level of AKT was markedly upregulated during oxidative stress to promote p65 nuclear translocation, triggering an inflammatory response that exacerbated cell damage and OA treatment significantly inhibited this process. Notably, OA was found to inhibit H2O2-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we found that OA supplementation to the medium did not result in a significant increase in intracellular OA, but marked increase in the ratio of OA to PA, which may be an important mechanism for the inflammatory response induced by oxidative stress during I/R. Finally, we demonstrated that OA increased the level of autophagy in HepG2 cells, which may be one of the protective mechanisms against oxidative stress. Collectively, this study revealed that FA metabolism functionally determines the oxidative stress-related inflammation caused by hepatic I/R. We hypothesize that OA treatment may be a promising strategy for preventing and treating I/R-induced liver damage.
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