A new class of Co9 S8 @MoS2 core-shell structures formed on carbon nanofibers composed of cubic Co9 S8 as cores and layered MoS2 as shells is described. The core-shell design of these nanostructures allows the advantages of MoS2 and Co9 S8 to be combined, serving as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for H2 and O2 evolution.
Microfluidic devices can better control cellular microenvironments compared to conventional cell migration assays. Over the past few years, microfluidics-based chemotaxis studies showed a rapid growth. New strategies were developed to explore cell migration in manipulated chemical gradients. In addition to expanding the use of microfluidic devices for a broader range of cell types, microfluidic devices were used to study cell migration and chemotaxis in complex environments. Furthermore, high-throughput microfluidic chemotaxis devices and integrated microfluidic chemotaxis systems were developed for medical and commercial applications. In this article, we review recent developments in microfluidics-based chemotaxis studies and discuss the new trends in this field observed over the past few years.
The design of catalysts with high activity and robust stability for alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) remains a great challenge. Here, we report an efficient catalyst of two-dimensional bimetallene hydrides, in which H atoms stabilize the rhodium palladium bimetallene. The system exists because of the introduction of H that is in situ chemically released from the formaldehyde solution during the synthesis. This provides a highly stable catalyst based on an unstable combination of metal elements. Density functional theory calculations show the H is confined by electronic interactions and the Miedema rule of reverse stability of the RhPd alloy. The obtained catalyst exhibits outstanding alkaline HER catalytic performance with a low overpotential of 40 mV at 10 mA cm −2 and remarkable stability for over 10 h at 100 mA cm −2 . The experimental results show that the confined H improve the activity, while the ultrathin sheet-like morphology yields stability. Our work provides guidance for synthesizing high-activity catalysts by confining heteroatoms into the crystal lattice of bimetallene and also a very novel mechanism for the growth of bimetallene made of highly immiscible components.
Tuning surface strain is a new strategy for boosting catalytic activity to achieve sustainable energy supplies; however, correlating the surface strain with catalytic performance is scarce because such mechanistic studies strongly require the capability of tailoring surface strain on catalysts as precisely as possible. Herein, a conceptual strategy of precisely tuning tensile surface strain on Co S /MoS core/shell nanocrystals for boosting the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity by controlling the MoS shell numbers is demonstrated. It is found that the tensile surface strain of Co S /MoS core/shell nanocrystals can be precisely tuned from 3.5% to 0% by changing the MoS shell layer from 5L to 1L, in which the strained Co S /1L MoS (3.5%) exhibits the best HER performance with an overpotential of only 97 mV (10 mA cm ) and a Tafel slope of 71 mV dec . The density functional theory calculation reveals that the Co S /1L MoS core/shell nanostructure yields the lowest hydrogen adsorption energy (∆E ) of -1.03 eV and transition state energy barrier (∆E ) of 0.29 eV (MoS , ∆E = -0.86 eV and ∆E = 0.49 eV), which are the key in boosting HER activity by stabilizing the HER intermediate, seizing H ions, and releasing H gas.
Development of novel anti-influenza A virus (IAV) drugs with high efficiency and low toxicity is critical for preparedness against influenza outbreaks. Herein, we investigated the anti-IAV activities and mechanisms of fucoidan in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that a fucoidan KW derived from brown algae Kjellmaniella crassifolia effectively blocked IAV infection in vitro with low toxicity. KW possessed broad anti-IAV spectrum and low tendency of induction of viral resistance, superior to the anti-IAV drug amantadine. KW was capable of inactivating virus particles before infection and blocked some stages after adsorption. KW could bind to viral neuraminidase (NA) and inhibit the activity of NA to block the release of IAV. KW also interfered with the activation of EGFR, PKCα, NF-κB, and Akt, and inhibited both IAV endocytosis and EGFR internalization in IAV-infected cells, suggesting that KW may also inhibit cellular EGFR pathway. Moreover, intranasal administration of KW markedly improved survival and decreased viral titers in IAV-infected mice. Therefore, fucoidan KW has the potential to be developed into a novel nasal drop or spray for prevention and treatment of influenza in the future.
Proper vesicle tethering and membrane fusion at the cell plate are essential for cytokinesis. Both the vesicle tethering complex exocyst and membrane fusion regulator KEULE were shown to function in cell plate formation, but the exact mechanisms still remain to be explored. In this study, using yeast two-hybrid (Y-2-H) assay, we found that SEC6 interacted with KEULE, and that a small portion of C-terminal region of KEULE was required for the interaction. The direct SEC6-KEULE interaction was supported by further studies using in vitro pull-down assay, immunoprecipitation, and in vivo bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BIFC) microscopy. sec6 mutants were male gametophytic lethal as reported; however, pollen-rescued sec6 mutants (PRsec6) displayed cytokinesis defects in the embryonic cells and later in the leaf pavement cells and the guard cells. SEC6 and KEULE proteins were co-localized to the cell plate during cytokinesis in transgenic Arabidopsis. Furthermore, only SEC6 but not other exocyst subunits located in the cell plate interacted with KEULE in vitro. These results demonstrated that, like KEULE, SEC6 plays a physiological role in cytokinesis, and the SEC6-KEULE interaction may serve as a novel molecular linkage between arriving vesicles and membrane fusion machinery or directly regulate membrane fusion during cell plate formation in plants.
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