Olanzapine is effective at treating multiple domains of schizophrenia symptoms. However, it induces serious metabolic side effects. Antipsychotic drug's antagonistic affinity to histamine H₁ receptors has been identified as a main contributor for weight gain/obesity side effects. This study therefore investigated whether a combined treatment of betahistine (a H₁ receptor agonist and H₃ receptor antagonist) could reduce the body weight/obesity induced by olanzapine. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally with olanzapine (1 mg/kg, t.i.d.) and/or betahistine (2.67 mg/kg, t.i.d.), or vehicle for two weeks. Rats treated with olanzapine exhibited significant body weight gain and increased food intake. Co-treatment of olanzapine with betahistine significantly prevented (-45%) weight gain and reduced feeding efficiency compared to sole olanzapine treatment. Betahistine treatment alone had no effect on weight gain and food intake. Olanzapine reduced locomotor activity, but not betahistine. These findings demonstrate that olanzapine-induced body weight gain can partially be reduced by co-treatment with betahistine. Betahistine has H₃ receptor antagonistic effects to increase histamine release, which may augment its direct agonistic effects on H₁ receptors. These findings have important implications for clinical trials using betahistine to control antipsychotic-induced obesity side effects.
Olanzapine is the one of first line antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia and other serious mental illness. However, it is associated with troublesome metabolic side-effects, particularly body weight gain and obesity. The antagonistic affinity to histamine H1 receptors (H1R) of antipsychotic drugs has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. Our previous study showed that a short term (2 weeks) combination treatment of betahistine (an H1R agonist and H3R antagonist) and olanzapine (O+B) reduced (−45%) body weight gain induced by olanzapine in drug-naïve rats. A key issue is that clinical patients suffering with schizophrenia, bipolar disease and other mental disorders often face chronic, even life-time, antipsychotic treatment, in which they have often had previous antipsychotic exposure. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic O+B co-treatment in controlling body weight in female rats with chronic and repeated exposure of olanzapine. The results showed that co-administration of olanzapine (3 mg/kg, t.i.d.) and betahistine (9.6 mg/kg, t.i.d.) significantly reduced (−51.4%) weight gain induced by olanzapine. Co-treatment of O+B also led to a decrease in feeding efficiency, liver and fat mass. Consistently, the olanzapine-only treatment increased hypothalamic H1R protein levels, as well as hypothalamic pAMPKα, AMPKα and NPY protein levels, while reducing the hypothalamic POMC, and UCP1 and PGC-1α protein levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The olanzapine induced changes in hypothalamic H1R, pAMPKα, BAT UCP1 and PGC-1α could be reversed by co-treatment of O+B. These results supported further clinical trials to test the effectiveness of co-treatment of O+B for controlling weight gain/obesity side-effects in schizophrenia with chronic antipsychotic treatment.
Excessive weight gain is a major metabolic side effect of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in the treatment of schizophrenia. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone secreted mainly from the stomach, which can induce weight gain and hyperphagia through regulating neuropeptides at the hypothalamus. Accumulating evidence implicates a relationship between ghrelin signalling and SGA-induced hyperphagia and weight gain. We report that olanzapine (a SGA with high weight gain liability) potently and time-dependently up-regulate ghrelin and ghrelin signalling, leading to hyperphagia and weight gain in female Sprague-Dawley rats, an action reversed by i.c.v. injection of a ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) antagonist. These findings indicate a crucial role of ghrelin signalling in hyperphagia induced by olanzapine, supporting the notion that GHS-R1a antagonist may be useful for pharmacological treatment of SGA-induced weight gain resulted from hyperphagia.
Although second-generation antipsychotics induce severe weight gain and obesity, there is a lack of detailed knowledge about the progressive development of antipsychotic-induced obesity. This study examined the hypothalamic histamine H1 receptor and AMP-activated protein kinase (H1R-AMPK) signaling at three distinctive stages of olanzapine-induced weight gain (day 1-12: early acceleration, day 13-28: middle new equilibrium, and day 29-36: late heavy weight maintenance). At the early acceleration stage, the rats were hyperphagic with an underlying mechanism of olanzapine-increased H1R mRNA expression and AMPK phosphorylation (pAMPK), in which pAMPK levels positively correlated with H1R mRNA expression and food intake. At the middle stage, when the rats were no longer hyperphagic, the changes in H1R-AMPK signaling vanished. At the late stage, olanzapine increased H1R mRNA expression but decreased pAMPK which were positively and negatively correlated with weight gain, respectively. These data suggest a time-dependent change of H1R-AMPK signaling, where olanzapine activates AMPK by blocking the H1Rs and causing hyperphagia in the acute phase. The chronic blockade of H1R may contribute to the late stage of olanzapine-induced heavy weight maintenance. However, pAMPK was no longer elevated and actually decreased. This indicates that AMPK acts as an energy sensor and negatively responds to the positive energy balance induced by olanzapine. Furthermore, we showed that an H1R agonist, 2-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) histamine, can significantly inhibit olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and AMPK activation in the mediobasal hypothalamus in a dose dependent manner. Therefore, lowering H1R-AMPK signaling is an effective treatment for the olanzapine-induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity.
Excessive weight gain has been identified as a serious metabolic side-effect of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), including olanzapine. While hyperphagia has been suggested to be the main contributor for this side-effect in the short term, reduced energy expenditure, in particular thermogenesis and locomotor activity, has been considered to contribute to the maintenance of heavy weight under long-term SGA treatments. Recent studies have identified metabolically active brown adipose tissues (BAT) in adult humans, suggesting potential clinical significance for the involvement of BAT thermogenesis in SGA-induced weight gain. However, to date there has been little research elucidating the central neuronal pathways affecting BAT thermogenesis or the morphological changes of the BAT. The present study aimed to investigate the role of BAT thermogenesis and locomotor activity in olanzapine-induced weight gain during the prolonged time courses of olanzapine treatment in an established female rat model. Although short- to mid-term olanzapine treatment had no effect on BAT temperature, we observed that long-term olanzapine treatment (from day 18 to 34) induced a significant reduction in BAT temperature, with an acute effect being observed between 45 and 150 min post-treatment in the long-term cohort. Additionally, in the long-term olanzapine group, the reduced BAT temperature was accompanied by decreased UCP1 and PGC-1α expressions in the BAT. Moreover, TH mRNA expressions in both hypothalamus and brainstem were also downregulated after mid- to long-term olanzapine treatment. Further, olanzapine led to reduced percentage of brown adipocytes in BAT during mid- to long-term treatments. Finally, locomotor activity was reduced throughout the three treatment cohorts. In summary, our results suggest that the reduction of BAT thermogenesis plays an important role during the long-term of olanzapine-induced weight gain, which was accompanied by an earlier onset of BAT adipocyte morphological changes and biochemical changes in the hypothalamus and the brainstem, while locomotor activity contributes to the entire olanzapine treatment courses.
. 2013, 'Effects of olanzapine and betahistine co-treatment on serotonin transporter, 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 receptor binding density ', vol. 47, Effects of olanzapine and betahistine co-treatment on serotonin transporter, 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 receptor binding density
AbstractOlanzapine is widely used in treating multiple domains of schizophrenia symptoms but induces serious metabolic side-effects. Recent evidence has showed that co-treatment of betahistine (a histaminergic H1 receptor agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) is effective for preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain/ obesity, however it is not clear whether this co-treatment affects on the primary therapeutic receptor binding sites of olanzapine such as serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2AR) and dopaminergic D2 receptors (D2R). Therefore, this study investigated the effects of this co-treatment on 5-HT2AR, 5-HT transporter
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