Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) confers protection on major organs from hypoxic/ischemic injuries; however, its impacts on attention network function and blood oxygen levels in unacclimatized adults exposed to high altitudes have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we recruited 120 healthy male volunteers, of which one was exposed to high altitude and the other was exposed to low altitude. The two cohorts were further divided into RIC and sham control groups. The attentional network test (ANT) was performed to evaluate cognitive function before and after RIC treatment. Other outcomes such as heart rate, blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, cerebral tissue oxygenation index (CTOI), and cerebrovascular hemodynamic indices were also evaluated. Prior to RIC treatment, there were no significant differences in orienting or executive function between the treatment and control arms of either cohort. Alerting function was significantly lower in the highaltitude cohort than in the low-altitude cohort. There were significant reductions in both blood oxygen and CTOI in the high-altitude cohort relative to the low-altitude cohort, while the pulse index (PI) of the former cohort was significantly increased. After RIC treatment, there was a significant difference in alerting function between the high-altitude RIC group and its associated control. The CTOI of the treatment group increased from 60.39±3.40% to 62.78±4.40%, and blood oxygenation also improved. Furthermore, this group showed a significant reduction in its PI. Exposure to high-altitude environments had a significant impact on alerting function, blood oxygen, CTOI, and PI. RIC ameliorated changes in attentional function, as well as blood oxygen and CTOI, suggesting that it potentially alters cerebrovascular compliance upon exposure to high altitude.
Introduction: Based on early studies of non‐motor function in the cerebellum and dysfunction in the cerebellum of post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, we presumed that the cerebellum was involved in the neuropathology of cognitive and emotional processing of PTSD patients, while the density of some sub‐areas of the cerebellum of PTSD patients was most likely abnormal.
Methods: Eleven female victims of rape with PTSD and 12 age‐matched female normal controls received 1.5 T 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. The scans were then analyzed using the voxel‐based morphometry 2 (VBM2) toolbox.
Results: Victims of rape with PTSD showed increased cerebellum density on the left side compared with normal controls (P<0.001), especially in the pyramis (x=−9, y=−72, z=−36; k=519; t=4.70), uvula (x=−4, y=−66, z=−35; k=256; t=4.02), declive (x=−6, y=−69, z=−30; k=213; t=3.84) and nodule (x=−4, y=−63, z=−31; k=147; t=3.93). In addition, compared with normal controls, the PTSD group showed significant differences in gray matter density of other brain areas, including the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe (P<0.001), insula, posterior cingulate, amygdala and hippocampus (P<0.005).
Discussion: These finding suggest that the cerebellum may be involved in the neuropathology and functional compensation in the neurocircuitry of PTSD.
In coping with increasing energy consumption and the consequential environmental pollution, green development is becoming an important part of social development. K E Y W O R D S DEA window, green total factor productivity, panel regression, Silk Belt and Road 1712 | PENG Et al. 2 | LITERATURE REVIEW Since Solow (1957) proposed the measure of total factor productivity (TFP) in 1957, research on TFP and its influencing factors has attracted considerable attention. Hu and Wang (2006) proposed the
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.