In this study, a novel microfluidic paper-based chemiluminescence analytical device (μPCAD) with a simultaneous, rapid, sensitive and quantitative response for glucose and uric acid was designed. This novel lab-on-paper biosensor is based on oxidase enzyme reactions (glucose oxidase and urate oxidase, respectively) and the chemiluminescence reaction between a rhodanine derivative and generated hydrogen peroxide in an acid medium. The possible chemiluminescence assay principle of this μPCAD is explained. We found that the simultaneous determination of glucose and uric acid could be achieved by differing the distances that the glucose and uric acid samples traveled. This lab-on-paper biosensor could provide reproducible results upon storage at 4 °C for at least 10 weeks. The application test of our μPCAD was then successfully performed with the simultaneous determination of glucose and uric acid in artificial urine. This study shows the successful integration of the μPCAD and the chemiluminescence method will be an easy-to-use, inexpensive, and portable alternative for point-of-care monitoring.
In this work, a photoelectrochemical (PEC) method was introduced into a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μ-PAD), and thus, a truly low-cost, simple, portable, and disposable microfluidic PEC origami device (μ-PECOD) with an internal chemiluminescence light source and external digital multimeter (DMM) was demonstrated. The PEC responses of this μ-PECOD were investigated, and the enhancements of photocurrents in μ-PECOD were observed under both external and internal light sources compared with that on a traditional flat electrode counterpart. As a further amplification of the generated photocurrents, an all-solid-state paper supercapacitor was constructed and integrated into the μ-PECOD to collect and store the generated photocurrents. The stored electrical energy could be released instantaneously through the DMM to obtain an amplified (∼13-fold) and DMM-detectable current as well as a higher sensitivity than the direct photocurrent measurement, allowing the expensive and sophisticated electrochemical workstation or lock-in amplifier to be abandoned. As a model, sandwich adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding aptamers were taken as molecular reorganization elements on this μ-PECOD for the sensitive determination of ATP in human serum samples in the linear range from 1.0 pM to 1.0 nM with a detection limit of 0.2 pM. The specificity, reproducibility, and stability of this μ-PECOD were also investigated.
In this paper, a novel image watermarking method is proposed which is based on discrete wave transformation (DWT), Hessenberg decomposition (HD), and singular value decomposition (SVD). First, in the embedding process, the host image is decomposed into a number of sub-bands through multilevel DWT, and the resulting coefficients of which are then used as the input for HD. The watermark is operated on the SVD at the same time. The watermark is finally embedded into the host image by the scaling factor. Fruit fly optimization algorithm, one of the natural-inspired optimization algorithms is devoted to find the scaling factor through the proposed objective evaluation function. The proposed method is compared to other research works under various spoof attacks, such as the filter, noise, JPEG compression, JPEG2000 compression, and sharpening attacks. The experimental results show that the proposed image watermarking method has a good trade-off between robustness and invisibility even for the watermarks with multiple sizes.INDEX TERMS Image watermarking, discrete wave transformation, singular value decomposition, Hessenberg decomposition, fruit fly optimization algorithm.
A novel addressable electrode array based on paper was assembled on the crossing points of the row/column electrodes to form a 4 × 6 sensor array by a facile home-made device-holder, one paper layer contained the sensing sites, the other paper layer the printed counter electrode and reference electrode.
A simple, low-cost, and sensitive 3D microfluidic origami electrochemiluminescence aptamer-device was developed based on a novel gold nanoparticle modified porous paper working electrode for point-of-care diagnosis.
Multiplexed detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) core biomarkers is of great significance to early diagnosis and personalized treatment of AD patients. Herein, we construct a robust and convenient surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) biosensing platform for simultaneous detection of Aβ(1−42) oligomers and Tau protein using different Raman dye-coded polyA aptamer-AuNPs (PAapt-AuNPs) conjugates. This strategy relies on the specific protein−aptamer binding-mediated aggregation of AuNPs and the concomitant plasmonic coupling effect that allow us to "turn on" SERS detection of protein biomarkers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work in which PAapt-AuNPs conjugates are used for probing protein biomarkers, which may be enlightening for the exploitation of more extensive biological applications of aptamer-AuNPs conjugates. The results reveal that the present strategy displays excellent analytical performance. Moreover, the applicability of this strategy is demonstrated in the artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples with satisfactory results. Except for the prominent sensitivity and practicality, our strategy offers additional advantages. The preparation of nanoconjugates is handy and easily repeated, and the synthesis cost is greatly reduced because it dispenses with the complicated labeling process. Moreover, the assay can be accomplished in 15 min, allowing rapid detection of protein biomarkers. Furthermore, simultaneous detection of Tau protein and Aβ(1−42) oligomers is realized by employing different Raman dye-coded nanoconjugates, which is valuable for accurately predicting and diagnosing AD disease. Thus, our PAapt-AuNPs conjugate-based multiplexed SERS strategy indeed creates a useful and universal platform for detecting multiple protein biomarkers and related clinical diagnosis.
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