The aim of this review is to address some characteristics that influence meat quality. Genetic groups, nutrition, finishing systems and gender are the major factors that change carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile. Genetic groups that have zebu genes in their composition show higher hot carcass dressing than genetic groups without zebu genes. Genetic groups that have European breeds in their composition have higher marbling scores. On the other hand, genetic groups that have zebu breeds show low marbling scores. Bulls finished in feedlots present higher final weight than steers, cull cows and heifers. Fat thickness is one of the principal parameters that are affected by different gender. Cull cows (4.72 mm) and heifers (4.00 mm) present higher values than bulls (1.75 mm) and steers (2.81 mm). The major effects observed by different systems of termination are fat thickness and marbling. Crude protein presents variation due to nutrition. Nutrition influences variation of fatty acid profile. Genetic groups also influence fatty acid profile. Genetic groups that have zebu genes in their composition show high percentage of PUFA. The major class of fatty acids that is changed with nutrition is PUFA. The better ratios of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 are found in Longissimus muscle of animals finished in pasture systems.
BackgroundThis study evaluated the effect of the solvent on the extraction of antioxidant compounds from black mulberry (Morus nigra), blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius) and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). Different extracts of each berry were evaluated from the determination of total phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity, and data were applied to the principal component analysis (PCA) to gain an overview of the effect of the solvent in extraction method.ResultsFor all the berries analyzed, acetone/water (70/30, v/v) solvent mixture was more efficient solvent in the extracting of phenolic compounds, and methanol/water/acetic acid (70/29.5/0.5, v/v/v) showed the best values for anthocyanin content. Mixtures of ethanol/water (50/50, v/v), acetone water/acetic acid (70/29.5/0.5, v/v/v) and acetone/water (50/50, v/v) presented the highest antioxidant capacities for black mulberries, blackberries and strawberries, respectively.ConclusionAntioxidants extractions are extremely affected by the solvent combination used. In addition, the obtained extracts with the organic solvent-water mixtures were distinguished from the extracts obtained with pure organic solvents, through the PCA analysis.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13065-014-0048-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The proximate composition, mineral contents and fatty acid composition of different parts (peel, pulp and seeds) of seven tropical fruits were evaluated. Beyond that, this study aims to evaluate the effect of drying processing on peels. Pulp and peel showed highest moisture values (65.7-93.3%), while the seed ranged from 5.8 to 67.2%. The drying processing of peels decreased moisture values (2.3-18.7%). Furthermore, drying processing did not affect ash contents, total crude protein, lipids and fiber values and fatty acid composition for avocado, pineapple, banana, papaya, passion fruit, watermelon and melon. A wide range of mineral contents was noted in different parts of fruit and calcium and potassium were found in larger quantities (25.4 to 4808 mg per 100 g). The fruits exhibited essential fatty acids as omega-6 and omega-3 with the largest contents observed in the peels and seeds (31.4 to 1970 mg per 100 g).
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