This study evaluated the omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and the proximate composition of muscle tissue of adult Nile tilapias to select the best feeding time length with a diet containing 70 (g kg )1 wt) flaxseed oil (FO). The results showed that dietary complementation with FO for 45 days is suitable for obtaining high levels of protein (164 g kg )1 ), total lipids (94 g kg )1 ), and ash (18 g kg )1 ). Furthermore, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the reduction of n-6 and an increase in the concentration of n-3. With 45 daysÕ time of FO feeding, fish weight was 532 g and it was improved by the incorporation of total n-3 (9.8%), consisting of alpha-linolenic acid (LNA; 6.3%), and n-3 very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 VLC-PUFA; 3.5%), and including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 1.2%). This gave a better n-6/n-3 ratio (1.1) of muscle tissue, a more desirable ratio than the present ratio sometimes as high as 1 : 20 in human diets. The concentrations of n-3 VLC-PUFA were higher than those of native Brazilian freshwater fish. Thus, 45 days is the shortest time period required for the inclusion of FO oil in tilapia feed to raise the nutritional value of adult Nile tilapia.
The cultivation of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybeans has continuously increased worldwide in recent years mainly due to the importance of glyphosate in current weed management systems. However, not much has been done to understand eventual effects of glyphosate application on GR soybean physiology, especially those related to seed composition with potential effects on human health. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of glyphosate application on GR soybeans compared with its near-isogenic non-GR parental lines. Results of the first experiment showed that glyphosate application resulted in significant decreases in shoot nutrient concentrations, photosynthetic parameters, and biomass production. Similar trends were observed for the second experiment, although glyphosate application significantly altered seed nutrient concentrations and polyunsaturated fatty acid percentages. Glyphosate resulted in significant decreases in polyunsaturated linoleic acid (18:2n-6) (2.3% decrease) and linolenic acid (18:3n-3) (9.6% decrease) and a significant increase in monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1n-7 (30.3% increase) and 18:1n-7 (25% increase). The combined observations of decreased photosynthetic parameters and low nutrient availability in glyphosate-treated plants may explain potential adverse effects of glyphosate in GR soybeans.
The experiment was carried out to evaluate performance, carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid composition of bulls and steers (1/2 Nellore vs 1/2 Simmental) fi nished in feedlot. From 8 to 20 months the animals were raised conventionally. At 20 month of age 16 bulls were randomly selected of which 8 were surgically castrated. At 32 months of age the animals were transferred into a feedlot system with individual pens of 10 m 2 . Both groups of animals were slaughtered at 35 months of age. The bulls were heavier initially and displayed higher fi nal weight, higher average daily gain and hot carcass weight than steers, bulls also had higher moisture content, crude protein and cholesterol and lower total fat content than steers. The ratios of PUFA to SFA and of n-6 to n-3 in bulls were higher than in steers.
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