we suggest that no additional diagnostic evaluation need be performed (Grade 2C) .Remark : This recommendation applies only to solid nodules. For guidance about follow-up of subsolid nodules, see Recommendations 6.5.1 to 6.5.4 .
2.3.3.In the individual with an indeterminate nodule that is identifi ed by chest radiography, we recommend that CT of the chest should be performed (preferably with thin sections Objectives: The objective of this article is to update previous evidence-based recommendations for evaluation and management of individuals with solid pulmonary nodules and to generate new recommendations for those with nonsolid nodules. Methods: We updated prior literature reviews, synthesized evidence, and formulated recommendations by using the methods described in the "Methodology for Development of Guidelines for Lung Cancer" in the American College of Chest Physicians Lung Cancer Guidelines, 3rd ed. Results: We formulated recommendations for evaluating solid pulmonary nodules that measure . 8 mm in diameter, solid nodules that measure Յ 8 mm in diameter, and subsolid nodules. The recommendations stress the value of assessing the probability of malignancy, the utility of imaging tests, the need to weigh the benefi ts and harms of different management strategies (nonsurgical biopsy, surgical resection, and surveillance with chest CT imaging), and the importance of eliciting patient preferences. Conclusions: Individuals with pulmonary nodules should be evaluated and managed by estimating the probability of malignancy, performing imaging tests to better characterize the lesions, evaluating the risks associated with various management alternatives, and eliciting their preferences for management.
CHEST 2013; 143(5)(Suppl):e93S-e120SAbbreviations: AAH 5 atypical adenomatous hyperplasia; ACCP 5 American College of Chest Physicians; AIS 5 adenocarcinoma in situ; EBUS 5 endobronchial ultrasound; ENB 5 electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy; FDG 5 fl uorodeoxyglucose; HU 5 Hounsfi eld unit; LR 5 likelihood ratio; SPECT 5 single-photon emission CT; TBB 5 transbronchial biopsy; TTNB 5 transthoracic needle biopsy; VATS 5 video-assisted thoracic surgery; VBN 5 virtual bronchoscopy navigation; VDT 5 volume doubling time
Purpose In response to advances in the field, the College of American Pathologists (CAP), the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), and the Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) recently updated their recommendations for molecular testing for the selection of patients with lung cancer for treatment with targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors. ASCO has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations. Methods The molecular testing guideline was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists. Then an ASCO Expert Panel reviewed the content and the recommendations. Results The ASCO Expert Panel determined that the recommendations from the CAP/IASLC/AMP molecular testing guideline are clear, thorough, and based upon the most relevant scientific evidence. ASCO endorsed the guideline with minor modifications. Recommendations This update clarifies that any sample with adequate cellularity and preservation may be tested and that analytical methods must be able to detect mutation in a sample with as little as 20% cancer cells. It strongly recommends against evaluating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression by immunohistochemistry for selection of patients for EGFR-targeted therapy. New for 2018 are recommendations for stand-alone ROS1 testing with additional confirmation testing in all patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma, and RET, ERBB2 (HER2), KRAS, and MET testing as part of larger panels. ASCO also recommends stand-alone BRAF testing in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Recommendations are also provided for testing methods for lung cancers that have a nonadenocarcinoma non-small-cell component, for patients with targetable mutations who have relapsed on targeted therapy, and for testing the presence of circulating cell-free DNA. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/thoracic-cancer-guidelines and www.asco.org/guidelineswiki .
New biomarkers are needed to detect pleural mesothelioma at an earlier stage and to individualize treatment strategies. We investigated whether fibulin-3 in plasma and pleural effusions could meet sensitivity and specificity criteria for a robust biomarker.
We measured fibulin-3 levels in plasma (from 92 patients with mesothelioma, 136 asbestos-exposed persons without cancer, 93 patients with effusions not due to mesothelioma, and 43 healthy controls), effusions (from 74 patients with mesothelioma, 39 with benign effusions, and 54 with malignant effusions not due to mesothelioma), or both. A blinded validation was subsequently performed. Tumor tissue was examined for fibulin-3 by immunohistochemical analysis, and levels of fibulin-3 in plasma and effusions were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Plasma fibulin-3 levels did not vary according to age, sex, duration of asbestos exposure, or degree of radiographic changes and were significantly higher in patients with pleural mesothelioma (105±7 ng per milliliter in the Detroit cohort and 113±8 ng per milliliter in the New York cohort) than in asbestos-exposed persons without mesothelioma (14±1 ng per milliliter and 24±1 ng per milliliter, respectively; P<0.001). Effusion fibulin-3 levels were significantly higher in patients with pleural mesothelioma (694±37 ng per milliliter in the Detroit cohort and 636±92 ng per milliliter in the New York cohort) than in patients with effusions not due to mesothelioma (212±25 and 151±23 ng per milliliter, respectively; P<0.001). Fibulin-3 preferentially stained tumor cells in 26 of 26 samples. In an overall comparison of patients with and those without mesothelioma, the receiver-operating-characteristic curve for plasma fibulin-3 levels had a sensitivity of 96.7% and a specificity of 95.5% at a cutoff value of 52.8 ng of fibulin-3 per milliliter. In a comparison of patients with early-stage mesothelioma with asbestos-exposed persons, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 94.1% at a cutoff value of 46.0 ng of fibulin-3 per milliliter. Blinded validation revealed an area under the curve of 0.87 for plasma specimens from 96 asbestos-exposed persons as compared with 48 patients with mesothelioma.
Plasma fibulin-3 levels can distinguish healthy persons with exposure to asbestos from patients with mesothelioma. In conjunction with effusion fibulin-3 levels, plasma fibulin-3 levels can further differentiate mesothelioma effusions from other malignant and benign effusions. (Funded by the Early Detection Research Network, National Institutes of Health, and others.)
SBRT has an important role to play in treating early-stage NSCLC, particularly for medically inoperable patients with limited other treatment options. Shared decision-making with patients should be performed in all cases to ensure the patient understands the risks related to SBRT, the side effects, and the alternative treatments available.
Background: To directly assess tumor oxygenation in resectable non^small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and to correlate tumor pO 2 and the selected gene and protein expression to treatment outcomes. Methods: Twenty patients with resectable NSCLC were enrolled. Intraoperative measurements of normal lung and tumor pO 2 were done with the Eppendorf polarographic electrode. All patients had plasma osteopontin measurements by ELISA. Carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA IX) staining of tumor sections was done in the majority of patients (n = 16), as was gene expression profiling (n = 12) using cDNA microarrays. Tumor pO 2 was correlated with CA IX staining, osteopontin levels, and treatment outcomes. Results:The median tumor pO 2 ranged from 0.7 to 46 mm Hg (median,16.6) and was lower than normal lung pO 2 in all but one patient. Because both variables were affected by the completeness of lung deflation during measurement, we used the ratio of tumor/normal lung (T/L) pO 2 as a reflection of tumor oxygenation. The median T/L pO 2 was 0.13. T/L pO 2 correlated significantly with plasma osteopontin levels (r = 0.53, P = 0.02) and CA IX expression (P = 0.006). Gene expression profiling showed that high CD44 expression was a predictor for relapse, which was confirmed by tissue staining of CD44 variant 6 protein. Other variables associated with the risk of relapse wereTstage (P = 0.02),T/L pO 2 (P = 0.04), and osteopontin levels (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Tumor hypoxia exists in resectable NSCLC and is associated with elevated expression of osteopontin and CA IX. Tumor hypoxia and elevated osteopontin levels and CD44 expression correlated with poor prognosis. A larger study is needed to confirm the prognostic significance of these factors.
An extensive analysis has produced stage classification proposals for lung cancer with a robust degree of discriminatory consistency and general applicability. Nevertheless, external validation is encouraged to identify areas of strength and weakness; a sound validation should have discriminatory ability and be based on an independent data set of adequate size and sufficient follow-up with enough patients for each subgroup.
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