The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi complex is an evolutionarily conserved multisubunit tethering complex (MTC) that is crucial for intracellular membrane trafficking and Golgi homeostasis. The COG complex interacts with core vesicle docking and fusion machinery at the Golgi; however, its exact mechanism of action is still an enigma. Previous studies of COG complex were limited to the use of CDGII (Congenital disorders of glycosylation type II)-COG patient fibroblasts, siRNA mediated knockdowns, or protein relocalization approaches. In this study we have used the CRISPR approach to generate HEK293T knock-out (KO) cell lines missing individual COG subunits. These cell lines were characterized for glycosylation and trafficking defects, cell proliferation rates, stability of COG subunits, localization of Golgi markers, changes in Golgi structure, and N-glycan profiling. We found that all KO cell lines were uniformly deficient in cis/medial-Golgi glycosylation and each had nearly abolished binding of Cholera toxin. In addition, all cell lines showed defects in Golgi morphology, retrograde trafficking and sorting, sialylation and fucosylation, but severities varied according to the affected subunit. Lobe A and Cog6 subunit KOs displayed a more severely distorted Golgi structure, while Cog2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 knock outs had the most hypo glycosylated form of Lamp2. These results led us to conclude that every subunit is essential for COG complex function in Golgi trafficking, though to varying extents. We believe that this study and further analyses of these cells will help further elucidate the roles of individual COG subunits and bring a greater understanding to the class of MTCs as a whole.
The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex, a multisubunit tethering complex of the CATCHR (complexes associated with tethering containing helical rods) family, controls membrane trafficking and ensures Golgi homeostasis by orchestrating retrograde vesicle targeting within the Golgi. In humans, COG defects lead to severe multisystemic diseases known as COG‐congenital disorders of glycosylation (COG‐CDG). The COG complex both physically and functionally interacts with all classes of molecules maintaining intra‐Golgi trafficking, namely SNAREs, SNARE‐interacting proteins, Rabs, coiled‐coil tethers, and vesicular coats. Here, we review our current knowledge of COG‐related trafficking and glycosylation defects in humans and model organisms, and analyze possible scenarios for the molecular mechanism of the COG orchestrated vesicle targeting.
Summary Many intracellular pathogens exploit host secretory trafficking to support their intracellular cycle, but knowledge of these pathogenic processes is limited. The bacterium Brucella abortus uses a Type IV secretion system (VirB T4SS) to generate a replication-permissive Brucella-containing vacuole (rBCV) derived from the host endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a process that requires host early secretory trafficking. Here we show that the VirB T4SS effector BspB contributes to rBCV biogenesis and Brucella replication by interacting with the Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) tethering complex, a major coordinator of Golgi vesicular trafficking, thus remodeling Golgi membrane traffic and redirecting Golgi-derived vesicles to the BCV. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Brucella modulates COG-dependent trafficking via delivery of a T4SS effector to promote rBCV biogenesis and intracellular proliferation, providing mechanistic insight into how bacterial exploitation of host secretory functions promotes pathogenesis.
Genetic and environmental factors, such as metals, interact to determine neurological traits. We reasoned that interactomes of molecules handling metals in neurons should include novel metal homeostasis pathways. We focused on copper and its transporter ATP7A because ATP7A null mutations cause neurodegeneration. We performed ATP7A immunoaffinity chromatography and identified 541 proteins co-isolating with ATP7A. The ATP7A interactome concentrated gene products implicated in neurodegeneration and neurodevelopmental disorders, including subunits of the Golgi-localized conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex. COG null cells possess altered content and subcellular localization of ATP7A and CTR1 (SLC31A1), the transporter required for copper uptake, as well as decreased total cellular copper, and impaired copper-dependent metabolic responses. Changes in the expression of ATP7A and COG subunits in Drosophila neurons altered synapse development in larvae and copper-induced mortality of adult flies. We conclude that the ATP7A interactome encompasses a novel COG-dependent mechanism to specify neuronal development and survival.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24722.001
The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex controls membrane trafficking and ensures Golgi homeostasis by orchestrating retrograde vesicle trafficking within the Golgi. Human COG defects lead to severe multisystemic diseases known as COG-congenital disorders of glycosylation (COG-CDG). To gain better understanding of COG-CDGs, we compared COG knockout cells with cells deficient to 2 key enzymes, Alpha-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and uridine diphosphate-glucose 4-epimerase (GALE), which contribute to proper N- and O-glycosylation. While all knockout cells share similar defects in glycosylation, these defects only account for a small fraction of observed COG knockout phenotypes. Glycosylation deficiencies were not associated with the fragmented Golgi, abnormal endolysosomes, defective sorting and secretion or delayed retrograde trafficking, indicating that these phenotypes are probably not due to hypoglycosylation, but to other specific interactions or roles of the COG complex. Importantly, these COG deficiency specific phenotypes were also apparent in COG7-CDG patient fibroblasts, proving the human disease relevance of our CRISPR knockout findings. The knowledge gained from this study has important implications, both for understanding the physiological role of COG complex in Golgi homeostasis in eukaryotic cells, and for better understanding human diseases associated with COG/Golgi impairment.
The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is a peripheral membrane protein complex which orchestrates tethering of intra-Golgi vesicles. We found that COG1-4 (lobe A) and 5–8 (lobe B) protein assemblies are present as independent sub-complexes on cell membranes. Super-resolution microscopy demonstrates that COG sub-complexes are spatially separated on the Golgi with lobe A preferential localization on Golgi stacks and the presence of lobe B on vesicle-like structures, where it physically interacts with v-SNARE GS15. The localization and specific interaction of the COG sub-complexes with the components of vesicle tethering/fusion machinery suggests their different roles in the vesicle tethering cycle. We propose and test a novel model that employs association/disassociation of COG sub-complexes as a mechanism that directs vesicle tethering at Golgi membranes. We demonstrate that defective COG assembly or restriction of tethering complex disassembly by a covalent COG1-COG8 linkage is inhibitory to COG complex activity, supporting the model.
Summary The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is a key evolutionally conserved multisubunit protein machinery that regulates tethering and fusion of intra-Golgi transport vesicles. The Golgi apparatus specifically promotes sorting and complex glycosylation of glycoconjugates. Without proper glycosylation and processing, proteins and lipids will be mislocalized and/or have impaired function. The Golgi glycosylation machinery is kept in homeostasis by a careful balance of anterograde and retrograde trafficking to ensure proper localization of the glycosylation enzymes and their substrates. This balance, like other steps of membrane trafficking, is maintained by vesicle trafficking machinery that includes COPI vesicular coat proteins, SNAREs, Rabs, and both coiled-coil and multi-subunit vesicular tethers. COG complex interacts with other membrane trafficking components and is essential for proper localization of Golgi glycosylation machinery. Here we describe using CRISPR-mediated gene editing coupled with a phenotype-based selection strategy directly linked to the COG complex’s role in glycosylation homeostasis to obtain COG complex subunit knock-outs (KOs). This has resulted in clonal KOs for each COG subunit in HEK293T cells and gives the ability to further probe the role of the COG complex in Golgi homeostasis.
The conserved oligomeric complex (COG) is a multi-subunit vesicle tethering complex that functions in retrograde trafficking at the Golgi. We have previously demonstrated that the formation of enlarged endo-lysosomal structures (EELSs) is one of the major glycosylation-independent phenotypes of cells depleted for individual COG complex subunits. Here, we characterize the EELSs in HEK293T cells using microscopy and biochemical approaches. Our analysis revealed that the EELSs are highly acidic and that vATPase-dependent acidification is essential for the maintenance of this enlarged compartment. The EELSs are accessible to both trans -Golgi enzymes and endocytic cargo. Moreover, the EELSs specifically accumulate endolysosomal proteins Lamp2, CD63, Rab7, Rab9, Rab39, Vamp7, and STX8 on their surface. The EELSs are distinct from lysosomes and do not accumulate active Cathepsin B. Retention using selective hooks (RUSH) experiments revealed that biosynthetic cargo mCherry-Lamp1 reaches the EELSs much faster as compared to both receptor-mediated and soluble endocytic cargo, indicating TGN origin of the EELSs. In support to this hypothesis, EELSs are enriched with TGN specific lipid PI4P. Additionally, analysis of COG4/VPS54 double KO cells revealed that the activity of the GARP tethering complex is necessary for EELSs’ accumulation, indicating that protein mistargeting and the imbalance of Golgi-endosome membrane flow leads to the formation of EELSs in COG-deficient cells. The EELSs are likely to serve as a degradative storage hybrid organelle for mistargeted Golgi enzymes and underglycosylated glycoconjugates. To our knowledge this is the first report of the formation of an enlarged hybrid endosomal compartment in a response to malfunction of the intra-Golgi trafficking machinery.
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