The structural correlates of impaired cognition in type 2 diabetes are unclear. The present study compared cognition and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic control subjects and assessed the relationship between cognition and MRI findings and blood pressure and metabolic control. The study included 113 patients and 51 control subjects. Brain MRI scans were rated for white matter lesions (WMLs), cortical and subcortical atrophy, and infarcts. Neuropsychological test scores were divided into five cognitive domains and expressed as standardized Z values. Type 2 diabetes was associated with deep WMLs (P ؍ 0.02), cortical (P < 0.001) and subcortical (P < 0.05) atrophy, (silent) infarcts (P ؍ 0.06), and impaired cognitive performance (attention and executive function, information-processing speed, and memory, all P < 0.05). Adjustment for hypertension did not affect the results. Within the type 2 diabetic group, cognitive function was inversely related with WMLs, atrophy, and the presence of infarcts (adjusted for age, sex, and estimated IQ), and there was a modest association with HbA 1c and diabetes duration. This association was strongest for age, even more so than in control subjects. We conclude that cognitive impairments in patients with type 2 diabetes are not only associated with subcortical ischemic changes in the brain, but also with increased brain atrophy. Diabetes
Background and Purpose-To improve the accuracy of early postonset prediction of motor recovery in the flaccid hemiplegic arm, the effects of change in motor function over time on the accuracy of prediction were evaluated, and a prediction model for the probability of regaining dexterity at 6 months was developed. Methods-In 102 stroke patients, dexterity and paresis were measured with the Action Research Arm Test, Motricity Index, and Fugl-Meyer motor evaluation. For model development, 23 candidate determinants were selected. Logistic regression analysis was used for prognostic factors and model development. Results-At 6 months, some dexterity in the paretic arm was found in 38%, and complete functional recovery was seen in 11.6% of the patients. Total anterior circulation infarcts, right hemisphere strokes, homonymous hemianopia, visual gaze deficit, visual inattention, and paresis were statistically significant related to a poor arm function. Motricity Index leg scores of at least 25 points in the first week and Fugl-Meyer arm scores of 11 points in the second week increasing to 19 points in the fourth week raised the probability of developing some dexterity
Atrophy is regarded a sensitive marker of neurodegenerative pathology. In addition to confirming the well-known presence of decreased global grey matter and hippocampal volumes in Alzheimer's disease, this study investigated whether deep grey matter structure also suffer degeneration in Alzheimer's disease, and whether such degeneration is associated with cognitive deterioration. In this cross-sectional correlation study, two groups were compared on volumes of seven subcortical regions: 70 memory complainers (MCs) and 69 subjects diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's disease. Using 3T 3D T1 MR images, volumes of nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen and thalamus were automatically calculated by the FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST)—algorithm FMRIB's Software Library (FSL). Subsequently, the volumes of the different regions were correlated with cognitive test results. In addition to finding the expected association between hippocampal atrophy and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease, volumes of putamen and thalamus were significantly reduced in patients diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's disease. We also found that the decrease in volume correlated linearly with impaired global cognitive performance. These findings strongly suggest that, beside neo-cortical atrophy, deep grey matter structures in Alzheimer's disease suffer atrophy as well and that degenerative processes in the putamen and thalamus, like the hippocampus, may contribute to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.
Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five novel loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci are also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (ρgenetic=0.748), which indicated a similar genetic background and allowed for the identification of four additional loci through meta-analysis (Ncombined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, Parkinson’s disease, and enriched near genes involved in growth pathways including PI3K–AKT signaling. These findings identify biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and provide genetic support for theories on brain reserve and brain overgrowth.
The measurement of the arterial input function by use of gradient echo sequences was investigated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. First, calibration curves representing the influence of the concentration of Gd-DTPA on both the phase and the amplitude of the MR signal were measured in human blood by means of a slow-infusion experiment. The results showed a linear increase in the phase velocity and a quadratic increase in ⌬R* 2 as a function of the Gd-DTPA concentration. Next, the resultant calibration curves were incorporated in a partial volume correction algorithm for the arterial input function determination. The algorithm was tested in a phantom experiment and was found to substantially improve the accuracy of the concentration measurement. Finally, the reproducibility of the arterial input function measurement was estimated in 16 patients by considering the input function of the left and the right sides as replicate measurements. This in vivo study showed that the reproducibility of the arterial input function determination using gradient echo sequences is improved by employing a partial volume correction algorithm based on the calibration curve for the contrast agent used. Magn Reson
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