Summary paragraphThe Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program seeks to elucidate the genetic architecture and disease biology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, with the ultimate goal of improving diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. The initial phases of the program focus on whole genome sequencing of individuals with rich phenotypic data and diverse backgrounds. Here, we describe TOPMed goals and design as well as resources and early insights from the sequence data. The resources include a variant browser, a genotype imputation panel, and sharing of genomic and phenotypic data via dbGaP. In 53,581 TOPMed samples, >400 million single-nucleotide and insertion/deletion variants were detected by alignment with the reference genome. Additional novel variants are detectable through assembly of unmapped reads and customized analysis in highly variable loci. Among the >400 million variants detected, 97% have frequency <1% and 46% are singletons. These rare variants provide insights into mutational processes and recent human evolutionary history. The nearly complete catalog of genetic variation in TOPMed studies provides unique opportunities for exploring the contributions of rare and non-coding sequence variants to phenotypic variation. Furthermore, combining TOPMed haplotypes with modern imputation methods improves the power and extends the reach of nearly all genome-wide association studies to include variants down to ~0.01% in frequency.
All cancers harbor molecular alterations in their genomes. The transcriptional consequences of these somatic mutations have not yet been comprehensively explored in lung cancer. Here we present the first large scale RNA sequencing study of lung adenocarcinoma, demonstrating its power to identify somatic point mutations as well as transcriptional variants such as gene fusions, alternative splicing events, and expression outliers. Our results reveal the genetic basis of 200 lung adenocarcinomas in Koreans including deep characterization of 87 surgical specimens by transcriptome sequencing. We identified driver somatic mutations in cancer genes including EGFR, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, MET, and CTNNB1. Candidates for novel driver mutations were also identified in genes newly implicated in lung adenocarcinoma such as LMTK2, ARID1A, NOTCH2, and SMARCA4. We found 45 fusion genes, eight of which were chimeric tyrosine kinases involving ALK, RET, ROS1, FGFR2, AXL, and PDGFRA. Among 17 recurrent alternative splicing events, we identified exon 14 skipping in the protooncogene MET as highly likely to be a cancer driver. The number of somatic mutations and expression outliers varied markedly between individual cancers and was strongly correlated with smoking history of patients. We identified genomic blocks within which gene expression levels were consistently increased or decreased that could be explained by copy number alterations in samples. We also found an association between lymph node metastasis and somatic mutations in TP53. These findings broaden our understanding of lung adenocarcinoma and may also lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
The Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme seeks to elucidate the genetic architecture and biology of heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders, with the ultimate goal of improving diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these diseases. The initial phases of the programme focused on whole-genome sequencing of individuals with rich phenotypic data and diverse backgrounds. Here we describe the TOPMed goals and design as well as the available resources and early insights obtained from the sequence data. The resources include a variant browser, a genotype imputation server, and genomic and phenotypic data that are available through dbGaP (Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes)1. In the first 53,831 TOPMed samples, we detected more than 400 million single-nucleotide and insertion or deletion variants after alignment with the reference genome. Additional previously undescribed variants were detected through assembly of unmapped reads and customized analysis in highly variable loci. Among the more than 400 million detected variants, 97% have frequencies of less than 1% and 46% are singletons that are present in only one individual (53% among unrelated individuals). These rare variants provide insights into mutational processes and recent human evolutionary history. The extensive catalogue of genetic variation in TOPMed studies provides unique opportunities for exploring the contributions of rare and noncoding sequence variants to phenotypic variation. Furthermore, combining TOPMed haplotypes with modern imputation methods improves the power and reach of genome-wide association studies to include variants down to a frequency of approximately 0.01%.
The identification of the molecular events that drive cancer transformation is essential to the development of targeted agents that improve the clinical outcome of lung cancer. Many studies have reported genomic driver mutations in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) over the past decade; however, the molecular pathogenesis of >40% of NSCLCs is still unknown. To identify new molecular targets in NSCLCs, we performed the combined analysis of massively parallel whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing for cancer and paired normal tissue of a 33-yr-old lung adenocarcinoma patient, who is a neversmoker and has no familial cancer history. The cancer showed no known driver mutation in EGFR or KRAS and no EML4-ALK fusion. Here we report a novel fusion gene between KIF5B and the RET proto-oncogene caused by a pericentric inversion of 10p11.22-q11.21. This fusion gene overexpresses chimeric RET receptor tyrosine kinase, which could spontaneously induce cellular transformation. We identified the KIF5B-RET fusion in two more cases out of 20 primary lung adenocarcinomas in the replication study. Our data demonstrate that a subset of NSCLCs could be caused by a fusion of KIF5B and RET, and suggest the chimeric oncogene as a promising molecular target for the personalized diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.
Despite considerable excitement over the potential functional significance of copy-number variants (CNVs), we still lack knowledge of the fine-scale architecture of the large majority of CNV regions in the human genome. In this study, we used a high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) platform that targeted known CNV regions of the human genome at approximately 1 kb resolution to interrogate the genomic DNAs of 30 individuals from four HapMap populations. Our results revealed that 1020 of 1153 CNV loci (88%) were actually smaller in size than what is recorded in the Database of Genomic Variants based on previously published studies. A reduction in size of more than 50% was observed for 876 CNV regions (76%). We conclude that the total genomic content of currently known common human CNVs is likely smaller than previously thought. In addition, approximately 8% of the CNV regions observed in multiple individuals exhibited genomic architectural complexity in the form of smaller CNVs within larger ones and CNVs with interindividual variation in breakpoints. Future association studies that aim to capture the potential influences of CNVs on disease phenotypes will need to consider how to best ascertain this previously uncharacterized complexity.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an aggressive head and neck cancer characterized by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and dense lymphocyte infiltration. The scarcity of NPC genomic data hinders the understanding of NPC biology, disease progression and rational therapy design. Here we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 111 micro-dissected EBV-positive NPCs, with 15 cases subjected to further whole-genome sequencing (WGS), to determine its mutational landscape. We identified enrichment for genomic aberrations of multiple negative regulators of the NF-kB pathway, including CYLD, TRAF3, NFKBIA and NLRC5, in a total of 41% of cases. Functional analysis confirmed inactivating CYLD mutations as drivers for NPC cell growth. The EBV oncoprotein latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) functions to constitutively activate NF-kB signalling, and we observed mutual exclusivity among tumours with somatic NF-kB pathway aberrations and LMP1-overexpression, suggesting that NF-kB activation is selected for by both somatic and viral events during NPC pathogenesis.
Only mammals have relinquished parthenogenesis, a means of producing descendants solely from maternal germ cells. Mouse parthenogenetic embryos die by day 10 of gestation. Bi-parental reproduction is necessary because of parent-specific epigenetic modification of the genome during gametogenesis. This leads to unequal expression of imprinted genes from the maternal and paternal alleles. However, there is no direct evidence that genomic imprinting is the only barrier to parthenogenetic development. Here we show the development of a viable parthenogenetic mouse individual from a reconstructed oocyte containing two haploid sets of maternal genome, derived from non-growing and fully grown oocytes. This development was made possible by the appropriate expression of the Igf2 and H19 genes with other imprinted genes, using mutant mice with a 13-kilobase deletion in the H19 gene as non-growing oocytes donors. This full-term development is associated with a marked reduction in aberrantly expressed genes. The parthenote developed to adulthood with the ability to reproduce offspring. These results suggest that paternal imprinting prevents parthenogenesis, ensuring that the paternal contribution is obligatory for the descendant.
The nucleotide sequence was determined for the genome of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae (Xoo) KACC10331, a bacterium that causes bacterial blight in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The genome is comprised of a single, 4 941 439 bp, circular chromosome that is G + C rich (63.7%). The genome includes 4637 open reading frames (ORFs) of which 3340 (72.0%) could be assigned putative function. Orthologs for 80% of the predicted Xoo genes were found in the previously reported X.axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) and X.campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) genomes, but 245 genes apparently specific to Xoo were identified. Xoo genes likely to be associated with pathogenesis include eight with similarity to Xanthomonas avirulence (avr) genes, a set of hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity (hrp) genes, genes for exopolysaccharide production, and genes encoding extracellular plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. The presence of these genes provides insights into the interactions of this pathogen with its gramineous host.
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