ABSTRACT:In humans, the pineal hormone melatonin (MEL) is principally metabolized to 6-hydroxymelatonin (6-HMEL), which is further conjugated with sulfate and excreted in urine. MEL O-demethylation represents a minor reaction. The exact role of individual human cytochromes P450 (P450s) in these pathways has not been established. We used a panel of 11 recombinant human P450 isozymes to investigate for the first time the 6-hydroxylation and O-demethylation of MEL. CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 all 6-hydroxylated MEL, with CYP2C19 playing a minor role. These reactions were NADPH-dependent. CYP2C19 and, to some extent CYP1A2, Odemethylated MEL. The K m (M) and V max (k cat , pmol min ؊1 pmol ؊1 P450) for 6-hydroxylation were estimated as 19.2 ؎ 2.01 and 6.46 ؎ 0.22 (CYP1A1), 25.9 ؎ 2.47 and 10.6 ؎ 0.32 (CYP1A2), and 30.9 ؎ 3.76 and 5.31 ؎ 0.21 (CYP1B1). These findings confirm the suggestion of others that CYP1A2 is probably the foremost hepatic P450 in the 6-hydroxylation of MEL and a single report that CYP1A1 is also able to mediate this reaction. However, this is the first time that CYP1B1 has been shown to 6-hydroxylate MEL. The IC 50 for the CYP1B1-selective inhibitor (E)-2,4,3,5-tetramethoxystilbene was estimated to be 30 nM for MEL 6-hydroxylation by recombinant human CYP1B1. Comparison of brain homogenates from wild-type and cyp1b1-null mice revealed that MEL 6-hydroxylation was clearly mediated to a significant degree by CYP1B1. CYP1B1 is not expressed in the liver but has a ubiquitous extrahepatic distribution, and is found at high levels in tissues that also accumulate either MEL or 6-HMEL, such as intestine and cerebral cortex, where it may assist in regulating levels of MEL and 6-HMEL.
Gamma-radiation exposure has both short-and long-term adverse health effects. The threat of modern terrorism places human populations at risk for radiological exposures, yet current medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are limited. Here we describe metabolomics for γ-radiation biodosimetry in a mouse model. Mice were γ-irradiated at doses of 0, 3 and 8 Gy (2.57 Gy/min), and urine samples collected over the first 24 h after exposure were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOFMS). Multivariate data were analyzed by orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS). Both 3-and 8-Gy exposures yielded distinct urine metabolomic phenotypes. The top 22 ions for 3 and 8 Gy were analyzed further, including tandem mass spectrometric comparison with authentic standards, revealing that N-hexanoylglycine and β-thymidine are urinary biomarkers of exposure to 3 and 8 Gy, 3-hydroxy-2-methylbenzoic acid 3-O-sulfate is elevated in urine of mice exposed to 3 but not 8 Gy, and taurine is elevated after 8 but not 3 Gy. Gene Expression Dynamics Inspector (GEDI) self-organizing maps showed clear doseresponse relationships for subsets of the urine metabolome. This approach is useful for identifying mice exposed to γ radiation and for developing metabolomic strategies for noninvasive radiation biodosimetry in humans.
There has been limited analysis of the effects of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on liver metabolism and circulating endogenous metabolites. Here we report the findings of a plasma metabolomic investigation of HCC patients using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOFMS), random forests machine learning algorithm and multivariate data analysis. Control subjects included healthy individuals as well as patients with liver cirrhosis or acute myeloid leukemia. We found that HCC was associated with increased plasma levels of glycodeoxycholate, deoxycholate 3-sulfate and bilirubin. Accurate mass measurement also indicated upregulation of biliverdin and the fetal bile acids 7α-hydroxy-3-oxochol-4-en-24-oic acid and 3-oxochol-4,6-dien-24-oic acid in HCC patients. A quantitative lipid profiling of patient plasma was also performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-TQMS). Using this method we found that that HCC was associated also with reduced levels of lysophosphocholines (LPC) and in 4/20 patients with increased levels of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA(16:0)), where it correlated with plasma α-fetoprotein levels. Interestingly, when fatty acids were quantitatively profiled by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), we found that lignoceric acid (24:0) and nervonic acid (24:1) were virtually absent from HCC plasma. Overall, this investigation illustrates the power of the new discovery technologies represented in the UPLC-ESI-QTOFMS platform combined with the targeted, quantitative platforms of UPLC-ESI-TQMS and GCMS for conducting metabolomic investigations that can engender new insights into cancer pathobiology.
Summary The emergent discipline of metabolomics has attracted considerable research effort in hepatology. Here we review the metabolomic data for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), hepatitis B and C, cholecystitis, cholestasis, liver transplantation and acute hepatotoxicity in animal models. A metabolomic window has permitted a view into the changing biochemistry occurring in the transitional phases between a healthy liver and hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma. Whether provoked by obesity and diabetes, alcohol use or oncogenic viruses, the liver develops a core metabolomic phenotype (CMP) that involves dysregulation of bile acid and phospholipid homeostasis. The CMP commences at the transition between the healthy liver (Phase 0) and NAFLD/NASH, ALD or viral hepatitis (Phase 1). This CMP is maintained in the presence or absence of cirrhosis (Phase 2) and whether or not either HCC or CCA (Phase 3) develop. Inflammatory signalling in the liver triggers the appearance of the CMP. Many other metabolomic markers distinguish between Phases 0, 1, 2 and 3. A metabolic remodelling in HCC has been described but metabolomic data from all four Phases demonstrate that the Warburg shift from mitochondrial respiration to cytosolic glycolysis foreshadows HCC and may occur as early as Phase 1. The metabolic remodelling also involves an upregulation of fatty acid β-oxidation, also beginning in Phase 1. The storage of triglycerides in fatty liver provides high energy-yielding substrates for Phases 2 and 3 of liver pathology. The metabolomic window into hepatobiliary disease sheds new light on the systems pathology of the liver.
Gamma-radiation exposure of humans is a major public health concern as the threat of terrorism and potential hostile use of radiological devices increases worldwide. We report here the effects of sublethal γ-radiation exposure on the mouse urinary metabolome determined using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-coupled time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Five urinary biomarkers of sublethal radiation exposure that were statistically significantly elevated during the first 24 h after exposure to doses ranging from 1 to 3 Gy were unequivocally identified by tandem mass spectrometry. These are deaminated purine and pyrimidine derivatives, namely, thymidine, 2′-deoxyuridine, 2′-deoxyxanthosine, xanthine and xanthosine. Furthermore, the aminopyrimidine 2′-deoxycytidine appeared to display reduced urinary excretion at 2 and 3 Gy. The elevated biomarkers displayed a time-dependent excretion, peaking in urine at 8–12 h but returning to baseline by 36 h after exposure. It is proposed that 2′-deoxyuridine and 2′-deoxyxanthosine arise as a result of γ irradiation by nitrosative deamination of 2′-deoxycytidine and 2′-deoxyguanosine, respectively, and that this further leads to increased synthesis of thymidine, xanthine and xanthosine. The urinary excretion of deaminated purines and pyrimidines, at the expense of aminopurines and aminopyrimidines, appears to form the core of the urinary radiation metabolomic signature of mice exposed to sublethal doses of ionizing radiation.
Xenobiotics are encountered by humans on a daily basis and include drugs, environmental pollutants, cosmetics, and even components of the diet. These chemicals undergo metabolism and detoxication to produce numerous metabolites, some of which have the potential to cause unintended effects such as toxicity. They can also block the action of enzymes or receptors used for endogenous metabolism or affect the efficacy and/or bioavailability of a coadministered drug. Therefore, it is essential to determine the full metabolic effects that these chemicals have on the body. Metabolomics, the comprehensive analysis of small molecules in a biofluid, can reveal biologically relevant perturbations that result from xenobiotic exposure. This review discusses the impact that genetic, environmental, and gut microflora variation has on the metabolome, and how these variables may interact, positively and negatively, with xenobiotic metabolism.
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