The potential for 2,4-D and its salts and esters to induce developmental toxicity was investigated in rats (8 studies) and rabbits (7 studies). Maternal toxicity associated with exposure was dependent on the dose level expressed as 2,4-D acid equivalents. The severity of the maternal effect was correlated to the 2,4-D acid-equivalent dose, with increasing dose levels that exceeded renal clearance causing increasingly more severe maternal effects. In both species, maternal body weight effects began to be manifested at dose levels of 30 mg 2,4-D acid equivalent/kg/day. At higher dose levels (50-75 mg/kg/day in rats and 75-90 mg/kg/day in rabbits), body weights and feed consumption were more severely affected. At dose levels > or =90 mg/kg/day in rats, clinical signs of toxicity (ataxia, muscular stiffness, and decreased motor activity) and mortality were noted. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for maternal toxicity in both species across the family of 2,4-D salts and esters was approximately 10 mg/kg/day. Significantly decreased fetal body weights and increased fetal variations were seen in rats only at maternally toxic dose levels in excess of 90 mg/kg/day acid equivalent. At maternally toxic doses in rabbits, embryonal and fetal development were essentially unaffected. There were no effect on maternal reproductive measures such as litter size, resorption rates, or fetal body weights, and there was no evidence of teratogenic activity. In summary, equivalent toxicity of the salts and esters is consistent with rapid and complete metabolic conversion to 2,4-D acid. No adverse fetal effects were noted at dose levels that did not also produce evidence of maternal toxicity or exceed renal clearance of 2,4-D indicating that the developing rat and rabbit fetus were not uniquely sensitive to 2,4-D and its forms.
Forms of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) are herbicides used in the control of a wide variety of broadleaf and woody plants. Subchronic toxicity studies in dogs were conducted on three forms of 2,4-D: the parent form, 2,4-D acid (ACID); 2,4-D dimethylamine salt (DMA); and 2,4-D 2-ethylhexyl ester (2-EHE). The three studies were designed to allow for comparison of the toxicity of the three forms. Doses in the subchronic studies, on an acid equivalent basis, were 0, 0.5 (ACID only), 1.0, 3.75, and 7.5 mg/kg/day. Treatment related findings in the three studies included reductions in body weight gain, and food consumption, and minor increases in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and alanine aminotransferase. The data from the three subchronic studies demonstrated the comparable toxicity of ACID, DMA, and 2-EHE and support a subchronic no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 1.0 mg/kg/day for all three forms. Due to the similarity in toxicity of the three forms of 2,4-D, a 1-year chronic toxicity study was performed on the parent ACID to fully characterize the potential toxicity of 2,4-D in the dog. ACID was well tolerated at doses of 0, 1.0, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/kg/day. The clinical pathology alterations were similar to those seen in the subchronic studies and were not progressive. The histopathology alterations observed were not severe in nature and the no observed effect level in the chronic study was determined to be 1.0 mg/kg/day. There was no indication of any immunotoxic or oncogenic response in the studies. In conclusion, the findings of these studies indicate comparable toxicity among representative forms of 2,4-D and their generally low toxicity following subchronic and chronic dietary exposure in the dog.
Forms of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (collectively known as 2,4-D) are herbicides used to control a wide variety of broadleaf and woody plants. Single-dose acute and 1-year chronic neurotoxicity screening studies in male and female Fischer 344 rats (10/sex/dose) were conducted on 2,4-D according to the U.S. EPA 1991 guidelines. The studies emphasized a Functional Observational Battery (which included grip performance and hindlimb splay tests), automated motor activity testing, and comprehensive neurohistopathology of perfused tissues. Dosages were up to 250 mg/kg by gavage for the single-dose study, and up to 150 mg/kg/day in the diet for 52 weeks in the repeated-dose study. In the acute study, gavage with 250 mg/kg test material caused slight transient gait and coordination changes and clearly decreased motor activity at the time of maximal effect on the day of treatment (day 1). Mild locomotor effects occurred in one mid-dose rat (75 mg/kg), on Day 1 only. No gait, coordination, or motor activity effects were noted by day 8. In the chronic study, the only finding of neurotoxicologic significance was retinal degeneration in females in the high-dose group (150 mg/kg/day). Body weights of both sexes were slightly less than controls in the mid-dose group, and 10% less than controls in the high-dose group. In summary, the findings of these studies indicated a mild, transient locomotor effect from high-level acute exposure, and retinal degeneration in female rats from high-level chronic exposure. Based on the results from these two studies, the no-observed-adverse-effect level for acute neurotoxicity was 15 mg/kg/day and for chronic neurotoxicity was 75 mg/kg/day.
The polyisocyanates of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) find widespread commercial use as components of paints and in the formulation of light-stable polyurethane coating materials. This 2-year study assessed the oncogenicity of the diisocyanate monomer HDI in male and female Fischer-344 rats exposed 6 h/day, 5 days/week to mean analytical air concentrations of 0, 0.005, 0.025, and 0.164 ppm HDI. During the in-life phase, transient eye irritation was observed in 0.164 ppm males, and a slight body weight decrease (5%) in the 0.164 ppm females during the second year of exposure. There were no exposure-related effects on mortality. Compound-related, non-neoplastic histopathologic changes were limited to the respiratory tract and changes were characterized by epithelial tissue reaction to the acute irritant properties of HDI vapor. For tissues of the nasal cavity, the major histopathologic findings were degeneration of the olfactory epithelium characterized by destruction of the epithelial architecture often with narrowing or atrophy and occasional focal erosion or ulceration. In addition, there was variable degeneration of the respiratory epithelium with hyperkeratosis of the epithelium, epithelial and mucus secretory cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, chronic-active inflammation, and errosive or ulcerative changes. These tissue effects along with a statistically significant decrease in body weight of female rats demonstrated attainment of a maximum tolerated dose. There was no evidence of progression of these changes in the nasal epithelium to neoplasia nor evidence of any compound-related neoplastic lesions for any of the other tissues examined. Therefore, it is concluded that HDI did not show a carcinogenic potential in this study.
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