This paper reports the findings of a 12-nation study designed to test empirically the relationships between societal cultural values, individual social beliefs, and the perceived effectiveness of different influence strategies. The relationships between three types of broad influence strategy (persuasive, assertive, and relationship based) and four dimensions of individual beliefs (cynicism, fate control, reward for application, and religiosity) were examined. Three of Project GLOBE's cultural values (in-group collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and future orientation) were selected to investigate their direct effects on the rated effectiveness of influence strategies, and their possible interaction with dimensions of individual beliefs. Results showed that different dimensions of individual social beliefs predict the perceived effectiveness of the three types of influence strategy, and that cultural values can moderate the strength of the relationship between these dimensions of individual social beliefs and the perceived effectiveness of influence strategies.
Identifying protein-ligand binding interactions is a key step during early-stage drug discovery. Existing screening techniques are often associated with drawbacks such as low throughput, high sample consumption, and dynamic range limitations. The increasing use of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) demands that these techniques also detect very weak interactions (mM K(D) values). This paper presents the development and validation of a fully automated screen by mass spectrometry, capable of detecting fragment binding into the millimolar K(D) range. Low sample consumption, high throughput, and wide dynamic range make this a highly attractive, orthogonal approach. The method was applied to screen 157 compounds in 6 h against the anti-apoptotic protein target Bcl-x(L). Mass spectrometry results were validated using STD-NMR, HSQC-NMR, and ITC experiments. Agreement between techniques suggests that mass spectrometry offers a powerful, complementary approach for screening.
This study extends multisource feedback research by assessing the effects of rater source and raters' cultural value orientations on rating bias (leniency and halo). Using a motivational perspective of performance appraisal, the authors posit that subordinate raters followed by peers will exhibit more rating bias than superiors. More important, given that multisource feedback systems were premised on low power distance and individualistic cultural assumptions, the authors expect raters' power distance and individualism-collectivism orientations to moderate the effects of rater source on rating bias. Hierarchical linear modeling on data collected from 1,447 superiors, peers, and subordinates who provided developmental feedback to 172 military officers show that (a) subordinates exhibit the most rating leniency, followed by peers and superiors; (b) subordinates demonstrate more halo than superiors and peers, whereas superiors and peers do not differ; (c) the effects of power distance on leniency and halo are strongest for subordinates than for peers and superiors; (d) the effects of collectivism on leniency were stronger for subordinates and peers than for superiors; effects on halo were stronger for subordinates than superiors, but these effects did not differ for subordinates and peers. The present findings highlight the role of raters' cultural values in multisource feedback ratings.
The relationship between sex role stereotypes and the characteristics perceived necessary for managerial success was examined among 153 male and 165 female commerce students in New Zealand using the 92-item Schein Descriptive Index. The results were compared with those from similar studies conducted in the USA, Great Britain, Canada, Germany, Japan, and the People's Republic of China. Both male and female commerce students in New Zealand perceive successful middle managers as possessing the characteristics, attitudes and temperaments commonly ascribed to men in general and, to a lesser degree, women in general. Discriminant analysis was used to identify the specific attributes used by respondents to distinguish the stereotypes.
This paper reports an empirical study conducted to examine the relationship between employees’ Entrepreneurial, Professional, and Leadership (EPL) career motivations and their intrapreneurial motivation. Using data collected from 425 working adults in the research/innovation and healthcare settings, we develop a self-report measure of employee intrapreneurial motivation. We also adapt an existing self-report measure of E, P, and L career motivations (previously developed and used with university students) for use with working adult organizational employees. Confirmatory factor analysis indicate that E, P, and L motivations and intrapreneurial motivation can be measured independently and reliably, while regression analyses show that the employees’ E, P, and L motivations all contribute to explaining variance in their intrapreneurial motivation. Individuals with high E, P, and L motivational profiles are also found to have the highest intrapreneurial motivation scores, while those low on E, P, and L motivations have the least intrapreneurial motivation. Our findings suggest that the potential for intrapreneurship is not unique to only entrepreneurial employees. Instead, one can find intrapreneurs among employees with strong leadership and professional motivations as well. We discuss the findings in the context of generating more research to address the challenges of talent management in the 21st century knowledge economies where there is greater career mobility and boundarylessness in the workforce.
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