HIIT significantly increases CRF by almost double that of MICT in patients with lifestyle-induced chronic diseases.
HIIT is more effective at improving brachial artery vascular function than MICT, perhaps due to its tendency to positively influence CRF, traditional CVD risk factors, oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin sensitivity. However, the variability in the secondary outcome measures, coupled with the small sample sizes in these studies, limits this finding. Nonetheless, this review suggests that 4 × 4 HIIT, three times per week for at least 12 weeks, is a powerful form of exercise to enhance vascular function.
Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of injury in chronic kidney disease. Potential pathways of oxidative stress mediating kidney injury are discussed. ABSTRACT:n ep_1572 311..321Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common and serious problem that adversely affects human health, limits longevity and increases costs to health-care systems worldwide. Its increasing incidence cannot be fully explained by traditional risk factors. Oxidative stress is prevalent in CKD patients and is considered to be an important pathogenic mechanism. Oxidative stress develops from an imbalance between free radical production often increased through dysfunctional mitochondria formed with increasing age, type 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammation, and reduced anti-oxidant defences. Perturbations in cellular oxidant handling influence downstream cellular signalling and, in the kidney, promote renal cell apoptosis and senescence, decreased regenerative ability of cells, and fibrosis. These factors have a stochastic deleterious effect on kidney function. The majority of studies investigating anti-oxidant treatments in CKD patients show a reduction in oxidative stress and many show improved renal function. Despite heterogeneity in the oxidative stress levels in the CKD population, there has been little effort to measure patient oxidative stress levels before the use of any anti-oxidants therapies to optimize outcome. This review describes the development of oxidative stress, how it can be measured, the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and the molecular pathways that are altered, the role of oxidative stress in CKD pathogenesis and an update on the amelioration of CKD using anti-oxidant therapies.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem. The classification of CKD by KDOQI and KDIGO and the routine eGFR reporting have resulted in increased identification of CKD. It is important to be able to identify those at high risk of CKD progression and its associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). Proteinuria is the most sensitive marker of CKD progression in clinical practice, especially when combined with eGFR, but these have limitations. Hence, early, more sensitive, biomarkers are required. Recently, promising biomarkers have been identified for CKD progression and its associated CVD morbidity and mortality. These may be more sensitive biomarkers of kidney function, the underlying pathophysiological processes, and/or cardiovascular risk. Although there are some common pathways to CKD progression, there are many primary causes, each with its own specific pathophysiological mechanism. Hence, a panel measuring multiple biomarkers including disease-specific biomarkers may be required. Large, longitudinal observational studies are needed to validate candidate biomarkers in a broad range of populations prior to implementation into routine CKD management. Recent renal biomarkers discovered include neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule-1, and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein. Although none are ready for use in clinical practice, it is timely to review the role of such biomarkers in predicting CKD progression and/or CVD risk in CKD.
These experiments tested the hypothesis that a relatively short duration of controlled mechanical ventilation (MV) will impair diaphragmatic maximal specific force generation (specific P(o)) and that this force deficit will be exacerbated with increased time on the ventilator. To test this postulate, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into one of six experimental groups: 1) control (n = 12); 2) 12 h of MV (n = 4); 3) 18 h of MV (n = 4); 4) 18 h of anesthesia and spontaneous breathing (n = 4); 5) 24 h of MV (n = 7); and 6) 24 h of anesthesia and spontaneous breathing (n = 4). MV animals were anesthetized, tracheostomized, and ventilated with room air. Animals in the control group were acutely anesthetized but were not exposed to MV. Animals in two spontaneous breathing groups were anesthetized and breathed spontaneously for either 18 or 24 h. No differences (P > 0.05) existed in diaphragmatic specific P(o) between control and the two spontaneous breathing groups. In contrast, compared with control, all durations of MV resulted in a reduction (P < 0.05) in diaphragmatic specific tension at stimulation frequencies ranging from 15 to 160 Hz. Furthermore, the MV-induced decrease in diaphragmatic specific P(o) was time dependent, with specific P(o) being approximately 18 and approximately 46% lower (P < 0.05) in animals mechanically ventilated for 12 and 24 h, respectively. These data support the hypothesis that relatively short-term MV impairs diaphragmatic contractile function and that the magnitude of MV-induced force deficit increases with time on the ventilator.
Background and objectives The generation of key uremic nephrovascular toxins, indoxyl sulfate (IS), and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), is attributed to the dysbiotic gut microbiota in CKD. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether synbiotic (pre-and probiotic) therapy alters the gut microbiota and reduces serum concentrations of microbiome-generated uremic toxins, IS and PCS, in patients with CKD.Design, setting, participants, & measurements Predialysis adult participants with CKD (eGFR=10-30 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 ) were recruited between January 5, 2013 and November 12, 2013 to a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of synbiotic therapy over 6 weeks (4-week washout). The primary outcome was serum IS. Secondary outcomes included serum PCS, stool microbiota profile, eGFR, proteinuria-albuminuria, urinary kidney injury molecule-1, serum inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-a), serum oxidative stress biomarkers (F 2 -isoprostanes and glutathione peroxidase), serum LPS, patient-reported health, Gastrointestinal Symptom Score, and dietary intake. A prespecified subgroup analysis explored the effect of antibiotic use on treatment effect.Results Of 37 individuals randomized (age =69610 years old; 57% men; eGFR=2468 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 ), 31 completed the study. Synbiotic therapy did not significantly reduce serum IS (22 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 25 to 1 mmol/L) but did significantly reduce serum PCS (214 mmol/L; 95% CI, 227 to 22 mmol/L). Decreases in both PCS and IS concentrations were more pronounced in patients who did not receive antibiotics during the study (n=21; serum PCS, 225 mmol/L; 95% CI, 238 to 212 mmol/L; serum IS, 25 mmol/L; 95% CI, 28 to 21 mmol/L). Synbiotics also altered the stool microbiome, particularly with enrichment of Bifidobacterium and depletion of Ruminococcaceae. Except for an increase in albuminuria of 38 mg/24 h (P=0.03) in the synbiotic arm, no changes were observed in the other secondary outcomes. ConclusionIn patients with CKD, synbiotics did not significantly reduce serum IS but did decrease serum PCS and favorably modified the stool microbiome. Large-scale clinical trials are justified.
Key pointsr Cold water immersion is a popular strategy to recover from exercise. However, whether regular cold water immersion influences muscle adaptations to strength training is not well understood.r We compared the effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on changes in muscle mass and strength after 12 weeks of strength training. We also examined the effects of these two treatments on hypertrophy signalling pathways and satellite cell activity in skeletal muscle after acute strength exercise.r Cold water immersion attenuated long term gains in muscle mass and strength. It also blunted the activation of key proteins and satellite cells in skeletal muscle up to 2 days after strength exercise.r Individuals who use strength training to improve athletic performance, recover from injury or maintain their health should therefore reconsider whether to use cold water immersion as an adjuvant to their training.Abstract We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P < 0.05). Isokinetic work (19%), type II muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P < 0.05), but not the CWI group. In another study, nine active men performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10−30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20−50%) increased 24-48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM + satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM + -and Pax7 + -positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase Thr421/Ser424 increased after exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P < 0.05). These data suggest that CWI attenuates the acute changes in satellite cell numbers and activity of kinases that regulate muscle hypertrophy, which Abbreviations DAPI, 4 ,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; ERK, extracellular regulated kinase; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; NCAM, neural cell adhesion molecule; Pax7, paired box protein 7; p70S6K, p70S6 kinase; RFD, rate of force development; RIPA, radioimmunoprecipitation assay; RM, repetition maximum; rpS6, ribosomal protein S6; Ser, serine; Thr, threonine; Tyr, tyrosine; 4E-BP1, (eukaryotic translation initiation factor) 4E-binding protein1.
Experimental studies examining the effects of regular exercise on cardiac responses to ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) are limited. Therefore, these experiments examined the effects of endurance exercise training on myocardial biochemical and physiological responses during in vivo I/R. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (4 mo old) were randomly assigned to either a sedentary control group or to an exercise training group. After a 10-wk endurance exercise training program, animals were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated, and the chest was opened by thoracotomy. Coronary occlusion was achieved by a ligature around the left coronary artery; occlusion was maintained for 20 min, followed by a 10-min period of reperfusion. Compared with untrained, exercise-trained animals maintained higher ( P < 0.05) peak systolic blood pressure throughout I/R. Training resulted in a significant ( P < 0.05) increase in ventricular nonprotein thiols, heat shock protein (HSP) 72, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and lactate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, compared with untrained controls, left ventricles from trained animals exhibited lower levels ( P < 0.05) of lipid peroxidation after I/R. These data demonstrate that endurance exercise training improves myocardial contractile performance and reduces lipid peroxidation during I/R in the rat in vivo. It appears likely that the improvement in the myocardial responses to I/R was related to training-induced increases in nonprotein thiols, HSP72, and the activities of SOD and PFK in the myocardium.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers