SummaryThe cellular glutathione redox buffer is assumed to be part of signal transduction pathways transmitting environmental signals during biotic and abiotic stress, and thus is essential for regulation of metabolism and development. Ratiometric redox-sensitive GFP (roGFP) expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana reversibly responds to redox changes induced by incubation with H 2 O 2 or DTT. Kinetic analysis of these redox changes, combined with detailed characterization of roGFP2 in vitro, shows that roGFP2 expressed in the cytosol senses the redox potential of the cellular glutathione buffer via glutaredoxin (GRX) as a mediator of reversible electron flow between glutathione and roGFP2. The sensitivity of roGFP2 toward the glutathione redox potential was tested in vivo through manipulating the glutathione (GSH) content of wild-type plants, through expression of roGFP2 in the cytosol of low-GSH mutants and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of wild-type plants, as well as through wounding as an example for stress-induced redox changes. Provided the GSH concentration is known, roGFP2 facilitates the determination of the degree of oxidation of the GSH solution. Assuming sufficient glutathione reductase activity and non-limiting NADPH supply, the observed almost full reduction of roGFP2 in vivo suggests that a 2.5 mM cytosolic glutathione buffer would contain only 25 nM oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG). The high sensitivity of roGFP2 toward GSSG via GRX enables the use of roGFP2 for monitoring stressinduced redox changes in vivo in real time. The results with roGFP2 as an artificial GRX target further suggest that redox-triggered changes of biologic processes might be linked directly to the glutathione redox potential via GRX as the mediator.
Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are small oxidoreductases that reduce disulphide bonds or protein-glutathione mixed disulphides. More than 30 distinct grx genes are expressed in higher plants, but little is currently known concerning their functional diversity. This study presents biochemical and spectroscopic evidence for incorporation of a [2Fe-2S] cluster in two heterologously expressed chloroplastic Grxs, GrxS14 and GrxS16, and in vitro cysteine desulphurase-mediated assembly of an identical [2Fe-2S] cluster in apo-GrxS14. These Grxs possess the same monothiol CGFS active site as yeast Grx5 and both were able to complement a yeast grx5 mutant defective in Fe-S cluster assembly. In vitro kinetic studies monitored by CD spectroscopy indicate that [2Fe-2S] clusters on GrxS14 are rapidly and quantitatively transferred to apo chloroplast ferredoxin. These data demonstrate that chloroplast CGFS Grxs have the potential to function as scaffold proteins for the assembly of [2Fe-2S] clusters that can be transferred intact to physiologically relevant acceptor proteins. Alternatively, they may function in the storage and/or delivery of preformed Fe-S clusters or in the regulation of the chloroplastic Fe-S cluster assembly machinery.
Glutathione, a tripeptide with the sequence gamma-Glu-Cys-Gly, exists either in a reduced form with a free thiol group or in an oxidized form with a disulfide between two identical molecules. We describe here briefly the pathways involved in the synthesis, reduction, polymerization, and degradation of glutathione, as well as its distribution throughout the plant and its redox buffering capacities. The function of glutathione in xenobiotic and heavy metal detoxification, plant development, and plant-pathogen interactions is also briefly discussed. Several lines of evidence indicate that glutathione and glutaredoxins (GRXs) are implicated in the response to oxidative stress through the regeneration of enzymes involved in peroxide and methionine sulfoxide reduction. Finally, emerging functions for plant GRXs and glutathione concern the regulation of protein activity via glutathionylation and the capacity of some GRXs to bind iron sulfur centers and for some of them to transfer FeS clusters into apoproteins.
We provide here an exhaustive overview of the glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (Gpx) family of poplar (Populus trichocarpa). Although these proteins were initially defined as GSH dependent, in fact they use only reduced thioredoxin (Trx) for their regeneration and do not react with GSH or glutaredoxin, constituting a fifth class of peroxiredoxins. The two chloroplastic Gpxs display a marked selectivity toward their electron donors, being exclusively specific for Trxs of the y type for their reduction. In contrast, poplar Gpxs are much less specific with regard to their electron-accepting substrates, reducing hydrogen peroxide and more complex hydroperoxides equally well. Site-directed mutagenesis indicates that the catalytic mechanism and the Trx-mediated recycling process involve only two (cysteine [Cys]-107 and Cys-155) of the three conserved Cys, which form a disulfide bridge with an oxidation-redox midpoint potential of 2295 mV. The reduction/formation of this disulfide is detected both by a shift on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or by measuring the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of the protein. The six genes identified coding for Gpxs are expressed in various poplar organs, and two of them are localized in the chloroplast, with one colocalizing in mitochondria, suggesting a broad distribution of Gpxs in plant cells. The abundance of some Gpxs is modified in plants subjected to environmental constraints, generally increasing during fungal infection, water deficit, and metal stress, and decreasing during photooxidative stress, showing that Gpx proteins are involved in the response to both biotic and abiotic stress conditions.
s Abstract Thioredoxins, the ubiquitous small proteins with a redox active disulfide bridge, are important regulatory elements in plant metabolism. Initially recognized as regulatory proteins in the reversible light activation of key photosynthetic enzymes, they have subsequently been found in the cytoplasm and in mitochondria. The various plant thioredoxins are different in structure and function. Depending on their intracellular location they are reduced enzymatically by an NADP-dependent or by a ferredoxin (light)-dependent reductase and transmit the regulatory signal to selected target enzymes through disulfide/dithiol interchange reactions. In this review we summarize recent developments that have provided new insights into the structures of several components and into the mechanism of action of the thioredoxin systems in plants.
Mitochondria contain thioredoxin (Trx), a regulatory disulfide protein, and an associated flavoenzyme, NADP͞Trx reductase, which provide a link to NADPH in the organelle. Unlike animal and yeast counterparts, the function of Trx in plant mitochondria is largely unknown. Accordingly, we have applied recently devised proteomic approaches to identify soluble Trx-linked proteins in mitochondria isolated from photosynthetic (pea and spinach leaves) and heterotrophic (potato tubers) sources. Application of the mitochondrial extracts to mutant Trx affinity columns in conjunction with proteomics led to the identification of 50 potential Trx-linked proteins functional in 12 processes: photorespiration, citric acid cycle and associated reactions, lipid metabolism, electron transport, ATP synthesis͞ transformation, membrane transport, translation, protein assembly͞ folding, nitrogen metabolism, sulfur metabolism, hormone synthesis, and stress-related reactions. Almost all of these targets were also identified by a fluorescent gel electrophoresis procedure in which reduction by Trx can be observed directly. In some cases, the processes targeted by Trx depended on the source of the mitochondria. The results support the view that Trx acts as a sensor and enables mitochondria to adjust key reactions in accord with prevailing redox state. These and earlier findings further suggest that, by sensing redox in chloroplasts and mitochondria, Trx enables the two organelles of photosynthetic tissues to communicate by means of a network of transportable metabolites such as dihydroxyacetone phosphate, malate, and glycolate. In this way, light absorbed and processed by means of chlorophyll can be perceived and function in regulating fundamental mitochondrial processes akin to its mode of action in chloroplasts.T hioredoxins (Trxs) are small, widely distributed proteins with a redox-active disulfide group. Two types of Trx systems have been described in plants based on the source of reducing power: the ferredoxin͞Trx system located in chloroplasts [in which electrons from ferredoxin reduce Trx by means of the iron-sulfur enzyme ferredoxin͞Trx reductase (1-4)] and the extraplastidic NADP͞Trx system [whereby NADPH reduces Trx by means of the flavoenzyme NADP͞Trx reductase (NTR) (3, 4)].Trx has two main functions by nature of its ability to reduce specific S-S groups: (i) as a substrate for enzymes that catalyze reactions such as the reduction of ribonucleotides, methionine sulfoxide, and hydrogen peroxide; and (ii) as a regulator that alters the activity or other functional properties of interacting target proteins (1-4). The regulatory role of Trx is prominent in plants where the first redox-controlled enzyme was identified in chloroplasts Ͼ25 years ago (1, 2). Since that time, the number of Trx-regulated enzymes has steadily increased (2, 4). Recently developed proteomics-based approaches have accelerated progress in making possible the systematic identification of Trx-linked proteins in complex extracts. With the addition of previously u...
When expressed in Escherichia coli, cytosolic poplar glutaredoxin C1 (CGYC active site) exists as a dimeric iron-sulfur-containing holoprotein or as a monomeric apoprotein in solution. Analytical and spectroscopic studies of wild-type protein and site-directed variants and structural characterization of the holoprotein by using x-ray crystallography indicate that the holoprotein contains a subunit-bridging [2Fe-2S] cluster that is ligated by the catalytic cysteines of two glutaredoxins and the cysteines of two glutathiones. Mutagenesis data on a variety of poplar glutaredoxins suggest that the incorporation of an iron-sulfur cluster could be a general feature of plant glutaredoxins possessing a glycine adjacent to the catalytic cysteine. In light of these results, the possible involvement of plant glutaredoxins in oxidative stress sensing or ironsulfur biosynthesis is discussed with respect to their intracellular localization.iron-sulfur protein ͉ plant
Peroxiredoxins are ubiquitous thioredoxin-or glutaredoxin-dependent peroxidases, the function of which is to destroy peroxides. Peroxiredoxin Q, one of the four plant subtypes, is a homolog of the bacterial bacterioferritin comigratory proteins. We show here that the poplar (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides) protein acts as a monomer with an intramolecular disulfide bridge between two conserved cysteines. A wide range of electron donors and substrates was tested. Unlike type II peroxiredoxin, peroxiredoxin Q cannot use the glutaredoxin or cyclophilin isoforms tested, but various cytosolic, chloroplastic, and mitochondrial thioredoxins are efficient electron donors with no marked specificities. The redox midpoint potential of the peroxiredoxin Q catalytic disulfide is Ϫ325 mV at pH 7.0, explaining why the wild-type protein is reduced by thioredoxin but not by glutaredoxin. Additional evidence that thioredoxin serves as a donor comes from the formation of heterodimers between peroxiredoxin Q and monocysteinic mutants of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) thioredoxin m. Peroxiredoxin Q can reduce various alkyl hydroperoxides, but with a better efficiency for cumene hydroperoxide than hydrogen peroxide and tertiary butyl hydroperoxide. The use of immunolocalization and of a green fluorescence protein fusion construct indicates that the transit sequence efficiently targets peroxiredoxin Q to the chloroplasts and especially to those of the guard cells. The expression of this protein and of type II peroxiredoxin is modified in response to an infection by two races of Melampsora larici-populina, the causative agent of the poplar rust. In the case of an hypersensitive response, the peroxiredoxin expression increased, whereas it decreased during a compatible interaction.
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