BackgroundThis is the first updated Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society guideline presenting a consensus for optimal perioperative care in gynecologic/oncology surgery.MethodsA database search of publications using Embase and PubMed was performed. Studies on each item within the ERAS gynecologic/oncology protocol were selected with emphasis on meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and large prospective cohort studies. These studies were then reviewed and graded according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system.ResultsAll recommendations on ERAS protocol items are based on best available evidence. The level of evidence for each item is presented accordingly.ConclusionsThe updated evidence base and recommendation for items within the ERAS gynecologic/oncology perioperative care pathway are presented by the ERAS® Society in this consensus review.
Implementation of an ERAS program was associated with significantly decreased opioid use after surgery and improvement in key patient-reported outcomes associated with functional recovery after surgery without compromising pain scores.
Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs aim to hasten functional recovery and improve postoperative outcomes. However, there is a paucity of data on ERAS programs in gynecologic surgery. We reviewed the published literature on ERAS programs in colorectal surgery, general gynecologic surgery, and gynecologic oncology surgery to evaluate the impact of such programs on outcomes, and to identify key elements in establishing a successful ERAS program. ERAS programs are associated with shorter length of hospital stay, a reduction in overall health care costs, and improvements in patient satisfaction. We suggest an ERAS program for gynecologic oncology practice involving preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative strategies including; preadmission counseling, avoidance of preoperative bowel preparation, use of opioid-sparing multimodal perioperative analgesia (including loco-regional analgesia), intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy (GDT), and use of minimally invasive surgical techniques with avoidance of routine use of nasogastric tube, drains and/or catheters. Postoperatively, it is important to encourage early feeding, early mobilization, timely removal of tubes and drains, if present, and function oriented multimodal analgesia regimens. Successful implementation of an ERAS program requires a multidisciplinary team effort and active participation of the patient in their goal-oriented functional recovery program. However, future outcome studies should evaluate the efficacy of an intervention within the pathway, include objective measures of symptom burden and control, study measures of functional recovery, and quantify outcomes of the program in relation to the rates of adherence to the key elements of care in gynecologic oncology such as oncologic outcomes and return to intended oncologic therapy (RIOT).
The association between neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and poor long-term outcomes in patients with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been demonstrated in numerous studies. The benefit of perioperative administration of anti-inflammatory drugs on these outcomes has not been well established. Our aim in this retrospective study was to investigate the effects of postoperative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration and NLR on tumor recurrence and survival in patients' undergoing surgical resection for NSCLC. This retrospective study included perioperative data from 1139 patients who underwent surgical resection for stages I–III NSCLC. Perioperative data such as baseline characteristics, adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy, pre- and postoperative NLR, and NSAID use (ketorolac, ibuprofen, celecoxib, or in combination) were included. We evaluated the association between preoperative NLR and NSAID use on recurrence-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS). In all, 563 patients received an NSAID as a part of their postoperative management. The majority of patients received ketorolac (n = 374, 67.16%). Ketorolac administration was marginally associated with better OS (P = 0.05) but not with RFS (P = 0.38). Multivariate analysis (n = 1139) showed that preoperative NLR >5 was associated with a reduction in RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05–1.78; P = 0.02) and OS (HR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.27–2.23; P = 0.0003). However, after accounting for tumor stage, NLR ≥5 was a predictor of RFS and OS only in patients with stage I NSCLC. To conclude, preoperative NLR was demonstrated to be an independent predictor of RFS and OS in a subset of patients with early stage NSCLC. Ketorolac administration was not found to be an independent predictor of survival.
There is widespread interest in the ERAS® guidelines for gynecologic oncology. • Many clinical departments still struggle with how to initiate their ERAS® program. • These recommendations will help translate the ERAS® guidelines into practice.
Background. Perioperative blood transfusions are associated with poor survival in patients with solid tumors including bladder cancer. Objective. To investigate the impact of perioperative blood transfusions on oncological outcomes after radical cystectomy. Design. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting and Participants. Adult patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. Intervention. Packed red blood cells transfusion during or after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. Outcome Measurements and Statistical Analysis. Recurrence-free survival (RFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). We calculated the pooled hazard ratio (HR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals by random and fixed effects models. Results and Limitation. Eight, seven, and five studies were included in the OS, CSS, and RFS analysis, respectively. Blood transfusions were associated with 27%, 29%, and 12% reduction in OS, CSS, and RFS, respectively. A sensitivity analysis supported the association. This study has several limitations; however the main problem is that it included only retrospective studies. Conclusions. Perioperative BT may be associated with reduced RFS, CSS, and OS in patients undergoing RC for BC. A randomized controlled study is needed to determine the causality between the administration of blood transfusions and bladder cancer recurrence.
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