Abstract-The advent of smart meters has automated the entire process of billing generation system over commercial energy usage which was previously done using digital meter. Although western countries practice its usage more, it is still unknown to many developing countries along with its power distribution. Hence, this paper reviews the working principle of smart meters along with the brief of basic operation description. It thoroughly investigates the implementation work towards algorithm design and techniques developed that are being carried out in last five years towards smart meters. The paper examines the various significant technology that has evolved to address the problems in smart meter e.g. performance improvement, energy efficiency, security factor, etc. Finally, a set of research gap is explored after scrutinizing the advantages and limitations of existing techniques followed by brief highlights of the feasible line of research to compensate the unaddressed problems associated with research work direction towards smart meters.
The transmission of digital image data now a day's become a routine and necessity of our society .The amount of digital medical data is increasing rapidly on internet. Now it is become necessity of the secure and reliable digital image data transfer for the fast and efficient diagnosis in the medical world. A lot of data is to be transferred between hospital where the major portion of the data is the medical images, patient history, and pervious diagnosis record. Digital Imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) standard are used to solve this problem where the patient records are attached. To make the transmission robust the patient record are embedded in the medical image using digital water marking technique for the reliable and secure transmission. The various type of noise may corrupt the medical image data during transmission and even storage media may also be affected. Using Error Control Coding Techniques to Encode the medical images may one of the possible solutions for this problem.
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