<div class="WordSection1"><p><strong>Objective. </strong>The aim was to study the association of the use of an oral antihyperglycemic agent metformin with the presence of ocular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). <strong>Methods. </strong>Medical records were reviewed for 234 patients with diagnosed T2D. 81.2% (n=190) patients were using metformin and 18.8% (n=44) using other oral antihyperglycemic agents. Plasma glucose concentration, glycated haemoglobin, and the presence of ocular complications in patients treated with metformin were compared to those in patients treated with other oral antihyperglycemic agents. <strong>Results. </strong>Ocular complications occurred in 65 patients (27.8%). Patients treated with metformin had fewer ocular complications compared to patients treated with other oral antihyperglycemic agents (χ2=19.985; p<0.0001). After adjustment for gender, age, duration of T2D, serum concentration of cholesterol, smoking, body mass index and presence of other diseases, treatment with metformin decreased <strong>the</strong> odds of both glaucoma (OR=0.14, 95% CI: 0.03-0.57, p=0.006) and diabetic retinopathy (OR=0.33, 95% CI: 0.14-0.82, p=0.017) compared with other oral antihyperglycemic agents. <strong>Conclusion. </strong>Our results suggest that metformin may have a protective effect on ocular complications, especially glaucoma, in patients with T2D. The effects of metformin either regarding prevention of ocular complications or ocular complications already developed in patients with T2D, should be further investigated.</p></div>
Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the use of neuroenhancing substances, exam anxiety and academic performance among first-year Bosnian-Herzegovinian (BH) university students. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, an ad hoc questionnaire was delivered to a sample of BH first-year university students. The following data were collected: socio-demographic features, consumption of neuroenchancing substances, the Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS) and academic performance. Results. A total of 214 students were included. Consumption of lifestyle substances, coffee, energy drinks, nicotine, alcohol, and marijuana, for the purpose of neuroenhancement increased during the week before the exams. OTC cognitive enhancer use was reported by 31.0%, and of benzodiazepines by 1.5% of students. No psycostimulants were used. A high to extremely high exam WTAS score was reported in 38.3% students. The exam WTAS score was positively correlated with consumption of coffee (rho=0.31; P<0.001), energy drinks (rho=0.18; P=0.009), and nicotine (rho=0.22; P=0.001), and negatively correlated with last exam grade (rho=-0.33; P<0.001). The exam WTAS score was a significant independent predictor (OR=0.55; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.97, P=0.039) for self-assessed academic performance. Self-assessed academic performance was positively correlated with last exam grade (rho=0.15; P=0.043). Conclusions. Although first-year BH university students do not seem to use either prescription or illicit psycostimulants, the consumption of nicotine, alcohol, and marijuana is worrying. However, the consumption of these neuroenhancing substances seems not to be related to better self-assessed academic performance. Finally, exam anxiety seems to be a significant problem among BH first-year university students.
Introduction:We studied the chemical composition and antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activities of essential oils from flowers of Lavandula angustifolia grown in Southern Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) as a chronic condition is a growing global problem. Its numerous complications, including ocular diseases, affect patients' quality and length of life. Metformin is an effective, safe, and inexpensive first-line pharmacotherapy for type 2 diabetes (T2D). The current evidence indicates metformin's multiple sites of action and multiple molecular mechanisms leading to its beneficial impact on metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, aging, as well as to its cardiovascular, neurological, bone, and antiproliferative properties. These impacts are the result of its acting on adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)dependent and AMPK-independent pathways. Limited data suggest the protective role of metformin on microvascular ocular complications, including retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration in patients with T2D. However, to confirm its mentioned protective and therapeutic effects, more large, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical studies are needed.
Background: Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects children's health and academic performance. The aim of this pilot study was to determine IAQ in elementary schools different in their internal and external characteristics, in settings of COVID-19 epidemics. Methods: IAQ parameters: fine particulate matter (PM 2,5 ) mass concentration, CO 2 concentration, temperature and relative humidity were measured in parallel in four elementary schools/classrooms during October (non-heating season) and four months (including holiday in January) of heating season. IAQ parameters were measured in settings of anti-epidemic restrictions (≤13 students in classroom, frequent ventilation). Results: During October, except in one school, PM 2,5 concentrations were below the upper recommended value (25μg/m³), but started rising in all schools in the heating season. The highest concentrations of PM 2,5 were registered in two schools with closed or shortly opened windows. CO 2 concentrations were mostly in the recommended range (up to 1000ppm) except in the school with constantly closed windows and in three schools in February when concentrations were higher. Except in one, the same school, and in January, both temperature and relative humidity were out of the recommended range (24,0-27,0°C in non-heating; 20,0-24,0°C in heating season; and 45-55%), with temperature mainly above and relative humidity mainly below it in three schools. The largest deviation in temperature and relative humidity were registered in urban schools. Registered differences may be explained by different internal and external characteristics.
In the present study, we investigated the antiproliferative activity of essential oil from leaves of Melissa officinalis L. grown in Southern Bosnia and Herzegovina. In vitro evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the M. officinalis essential oil was carried out on three human tumor cell lines: MCF-7, NCI-H460 and MOLT-4 by MTT assay. M. officinalis essential oil was characterized by high percentage of monoterpenes (77,5%), followed by the sesquiterpene fraction (14,5%) and aliphatic compounds (2,2%). The main constituents of the essential oil of M. officinalis are citral (47,2%), caryophyllene oxide (10,2%), citronellal (5,4%), geraniol (6,6%), geranyl acetate (4,1%) and βcaryophyllene (3,8%). The essential oil showed significant antiproliferative activity against three cancer cell lines, MOLT-4, MCF-7, and NCI-H460 cells, with GI50 values of <5, 6±2 and 31±17 µg/mL, respectively. The results revealed that M. officinalis L. essential oil has a potential as anticancer therapeutic agent.Resumen: En el presente estudio, investigamos la actividad antiproliferativa del aceite esencial de las hojas de Melissa officinalis L. cultivadas en el sur de Bosnia y Herzegovina. La evaluación in vitro de la actividad antiproliferativa del aceite esencial de M. officinalis se llevó a cabo en tres líneas celulares de tumores humanos: MCF-7, NCI-H460 y MOLT-4 utilizando el ensayo de MTT. El aceite esencial de M. officinalis se caracterizó por un alto porcentaje de monoterpenos (77,5%), seguido de la fracción sesquiterpénica (14,5%) y compuestos alifáticos (2,2%). Los principales constituyentes del aceite esencial de M. officinalis fueron citral (47,2%), óxido de cariofileno (10,2%), citronelal (5,4%), geraniol (6,6%), acetato de geranilo (4, 1%), y β-cariofileno (3,8%). El aceite esencial mostró una actividad antiproliferativa significativa contra las líneas celulares de cáncer MOLT-4, MCF-7 y NCI-H460, con valores GI50 de <5, 6±2 y 31±17 µg/mL, respectivamente. Los resultados revelaron que el aceite esencial de M. officinalis L. tiene potencial como agente terapéutico contra el cáncer.Palabras clave: Melissa officinalis L.; Aceite esencial; Agentes antiproliferativos; MOLT-4; MCF-7; NCI-H460 Recibido |
Experimental studies of burns require the use of different animal models. The aim of this work was to establish experimental model of thermal injuries and to evaluate the effects of topical agents on healing of the burn wounds. Forty female Wistar rats were randomly classified in 4 groups and isolated for 2 weeks before the onset of experiment. Animals were primarily anaesthetized with pentobarbital-sodium and then shaved (skin area of their back with diameters 5 cm x 5 cm). A round metal stamp with contact area of 5 cm2 and total weight of 100 g was heated up to 80 degrees C and then applied without additional pressure on the depilated skin of the back for 14 seconds. This procedure produced a standardized burn wound. Induced burn wounds were immediately drowned in the 4 degrees C- water for 3 s in order to maintain microcirculation. After the inducement of thermal injures, all rats were treated with 1% silver sulfadiazine cream, herbal topical preparations or were not treated at all. Burn wounds were treated twice a day until the healing completion. The result of treatment application was a significant reduction of burn wound diameters. Herbal topical preparations expressed positive therapeutic effects on the parameters of burn wounds. The efficiency of silver sulfadiazine cream in burn wound healing was significantly more expressed in comparison to healing process in control group of animals (p < or = 0,001). We conclude that herbal topical preparations efficiently caused the completion of burn wound healing process without scar formation.
Depression is among the most common of chronic health problems. WHO report predicts that depression will be the leading cause of disability in the industrial world by the year 2020. To be successful, treatment for the patients suffering from depression must be continued until complete recovery, but most patients do not stay on their antidepressant medication long enough. One of the most frequent reasons for break down is appearance of unpleasant side effects. In this study we followed up dynamics of the characteristic side effects of antidepressant therapy, with the major goal to assess their frequency and characteristics. The sample was all female patients taking antidepressant drugs in the Department of Psychiatry of Clinical Centre of University in Sarajevo. The treatment with antidepressants was efficient in most of the patients. A major advantage of SSRI over TCA was less pronounced side effects. The most intensive side effects of TCA (amitriptyline) were dry mouth, tremor and tachycardia while the most frequent side effects included blurred vision, tachycardia, dry mouth, tremor and sedation. Side effects of SSRI (fluoxetine/fluvoxamine) were mild, and the most frequent were nausea, tachycardia, swelling, dry mouth.
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