Metabolites are active controllers of cellular physiology, but their role in complex behaviors is less clear. Here we report metabolic changes that occur during the transition between hunger and satiety in
. To analyze these data in the context of fruit fly metabolic networks, we developed Flyscape, an open-access tool. We show that in response to eating, metabolic profiles change in quick, but distinct ways in the heads and bodies. Consumption of a high sugar diet dulls the metabolic and behavioral differences between the fasted and fed state, and reshapes the way nutrients are utilized upon eating. Specifically, we found that high dietary sugar increases TCA cycle activity, alters neurochemicals, and depletes 1-carbon metabolism and brain health metabolites N-acetyl-aspartate and kynurenine. Together, our work identifies the metabolic transitions that occur during hunger and satiation, and provides a platform to study the role of metabolites and diet in complex behavior.
Selective autophagy is a conserved subcellular process that maintains the health of eukaryotic cells by targeting damaged or toxic cytoplasmic components to the vacuole/lysosome for degradation. A key player in the initiation of selective autophagy in S. Cerevisiae (baker’s yeast) is a large adapter protein called Atg11. Atg11 has multiple predicted coiled-coil domains and intrinsically disordered regions, is known to dimerize, and binds and organizes other essential components of the autophagosome formation machinery, including Atg1 and Atg9. We performed systematic directed mutagenesis on the coiled-coil 2 domain of Atg11 in order to map which residues were required for its structure and function. Using yeast-2-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation, we found only three residues to be critical: I562, Y565, and I569. Mutation of any of these, but especially Y565, could interfere with Atg11 dimerization and block its interaction with Atg1 and Atg9, thereby inactivating selective autophagy.
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