-Background -Many studies in the literature have warned of the need for investigation of colonic lesions among patients, especially elderly ones, who have bacteremia and/or endocarditis from Streptococcus bovis. Bacteremia and infectious endocarditis from Streptococcus bovis may be related to the presence of neoplastic lesions in the large intestine and hepatic disease. Aim -This report describes a patient who presented infectious endocarditis from Streptococcus bovis associated with colonic carcinoma and tubular-villous adenomas. Conclusions -The finding of this bacterium among patients with septicemia and/or endocarditis is also related to the presence of villous or tubular-villous adenomas in the large intestine. For this reason, complete and detailed investigation of the large intestine must be performed in patients with infectious endocarditis, even in the absence of intestinal symptoms. An increased incidence of this condition or hepatic dysfunction has been reported among patients with infectious endocarditis from Streptococcus bovis. Patients with infectious endocarditis from Streptococcus bovis and normal colonoscopy may be included in the group at risk for developing colonic cancer. The knowledge that there is an association between endocarditis from Streptococcus bovis and carcinoma of the colon has important clinical implications. If the lesion can be discovered at an early stage, curative resection may become possible.
During cancer cell growth many tumors exhibit various grades of desmoplasia, unorganized production of fibrous or connective tissue, composed mainly of collagen fibers and myofibroblasts. The accumulation of an extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding tumors directly affects cancer cell proliferation, migration and spread; therefore the study of desmoplasia is of vital importance. Stromal fibroblasts surrounding tumors are activated to myofibroblasts and become the primary producers of ECM during desmoplasia. The composition, density and organization of this ECM accumulation play a major role on the influence desmoplasia has upon tumor cells. In this study, we analyzed desmoplasia in vivo in human colorectal carcinoma tissue, detecting an up-regulation of collagen I, collagen IV and collagen V in human colorectal cancer desmoplastic reaction. These components were then analyzed in vitro co-cultivating colorectal cancer cells (Caco-2 and HCT116) and fibroblasts utilizing various co-culture techniques. Our findings demonstrate that direct cell-cell contact between fibroblasts and colorectal cancer cells evokes an increase in ECM density, composed of unorganized collagens (I, III, IV and V) and proteoglycans (biglycan, fibromodulin, perlecan and versican). The desmoplastic collagen fibers were thick, with an altered orientation, as well as deposited as bundles. This increased ECM density inhibited the migration and invasion of the colorectal tumor cells in both 2D and 3D co-culture systems. Therefore this study sheds light on a possible restricting role desmoplasia could play in colorectal cancer invasion.
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has become an important option in the therapy of primary and secondary hepatic tumors. Surgical resection is still the best treatment option, but only a few of these patients are candidates for surgery: multilobar disease, insufficient liver reserve that will lead to liver failure after resection, extra-hepatic disease, proximity to major bile ducts and vessels, and co-morbidities. RFA has a low mortality and morbidity rate and is considered to be safe. Thus, complications occur and vary widely in the literature. Complications are caused by thermal damage, direct needle injury, infection and the patient's co-morbidities. Tumor type, type of approach, number of lesions, tumor localization, underlying hepatic disease, the physician's experience, associated hepatic resection and lesion size have been described as factors significantly associated with complications. The physician in charge should promptly recognize high-risk patients more susceptible to complications, perform a close post procedure follow-up and manage them early and adequately if they occur. We aim to describe complications from RFA of hepatic tumors and their risk factors, as well as a few techniques to avoid them. This way, others can decrease their morbidity rates with better outcomes.
Agenesis of the gallbladder and cystic duct is a rare anomaly that is usually asymptomatic. The patient may present symptoms characteristic of cholelithiasis. Its surgical confirmation requires careful dissection of the common bile duct and intraoperative cholangiography or ultrasonography to be performed, to exclude the possibility of an ectopic gallbladder. The authors describe two cases of this unusual affection and comment on its clinical, pathophysiological and diagnostic aspects.
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the expression of the extracellular matrix (ECM) genes SPARC, SPP1, FN1, ITGA5 and ITGAV and the histopathologic parameters of neoplastic progression and colorectal carcinoma (CRC) dissemination. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in 114 patients with stage I–IV CRC who underwent primary tumor resection. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays were performed in samples obtained from the primary tumors. The correlation between the expression of these markers and the expression of p53, Bcl-2, Ki67, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor was assessed with the Spearman coefficient (r). Results: The ITGAV gene was found to be significantly amplified in tumors with positive perineural invasion (p = 0.028). Expression of the SPARC, SPP1, FN1, ITGA5 and ITGAV genes did not correlate with TNM staging. A direct relationship between ITGAV and EGFR expression (r = 0.774; p < 0.001) was observed by IHC. Conclusions: ECM gene expression did not correlate with classical prognostic factors for CRC, but overexpression of the ITGAV gene and protein was correlated with an increased risk of perineural invasion. The relationship between ITGAV and EGFR expression suggests the possibility of crosstalk in this signal pathway.
A methodology with high sensitivity and specificity is proposed with a cutoff value for HPA2 and Syn-1 in the immunohistochemistry assay to define the presence of tumor. It was demonstrated for the first time in the literature that HPA2 is over-expressed in colorectal carcinoma tissues compared with nonneoplastic tissues. HPA2 over-expression could be possibly related to Syn-1 shedding despite the fact that HPA2 does not present enzymatic activity as HPA1.
The preoperative diagnosis of Mirizzi syndrome is difficult and an awarded suspicion is necessary to avoid lesions of the biliary tree. The problem may only become evident during the operation due to firm adherences around Calot's triangle. The success of the treatment is related to a precocious recognition of the condition, even at the time of surgery, and adapting the management considering to the individual characteristics of each case.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.