Avaliou-se o perfil bioquímico do soro de frangos de corte alimentados com a enzima α-amilase produzida por dois microrganismos. Produziram-se dois extratos, um com a-amilase obtida a partir de Cryptococcus flavus em meio de levedura comercial e outro com Aspergillus niger HM2003 em meio de proteína de soja e amido comercial, com atividade de 9,58 U/mL e 10,0 U/mL, respectivamente. Utilizaram-se 360 pintos de corte Cobb 500 de 1 dia de idade e com 49,72 ± 0,68 g de peso vivo inicial. As aves foram alojadas em baterias e foram criadas até os 21 dias de idade. Foram utilizados três dietas, cada uma com cinco repetições de 12 aves, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. A primeira dieta (basal) foi formulada sem adição de enzima e as outras duas receberam a suplementação de a-amilase produzida por cultivo de Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003. Dietas à base de milho e soja foram formuladas em duas fases: pré-inicial (1-7 dias) e inicial (8-21 dias). Na fase pré-inicial, foram observados os seguintes valores médios para cálcio (6,90 e 5,99 mg/dL), proteína plasmática (2,0 e 2,50 g/dL) e fosfatase alcalina (979,98 e 974,66 UI/L), respectivamente para Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003. A dieta acrescida de a-amilase obtida a partir de Aspergillus niger HM2003 determinou maior concentração sérica de fósforo. Na fase inicial, os resultados significativos relacionaram-se a potássio quando avaliadas dietas com adição de a-amilase pelas duas fontes. A incorporação das enzimas testadas não proporciona alterações metabólicas ou toxicidade nos animais.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible threonine supplementation in the starter diet on the performance, intestinal parameters, and nutrient metabolism of broilers derived from breeders of different ages. In total, 480 one-day-old Cobb chicks, derived from 38-or 49-week-oldbreeders, were housed in experimental battery cages until 21 days of age and fed four different threonine levels (800, 900, 1,000, or 1,100 mg/kg) in the starter feed. A completely randomized experimental design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement (breeder age x threonine levels) was applied, totaling eight treatments with five replicates of 12 birds each. Broilers from older breeders fed 800 mg digestible threonine/kg of diet presented higher weight gain, with a positive linear effect. There was also an interaction between breeder age and threonine levels for the weight gain of 21-d-old broilers supplemented at maximum level of 1,003 mg Thr/kg diet during the starter phase. There was no effect of breeder age or threonine levels on nutrient metabolism during the period of 17-21 days. There was no influence of breeder age or threonine levels in the starter diet on intestinal morphometric measurements, absorption area, or percentage of goblet cells.
-The objective of this study to verify the physicochemical quality of commercial washed and unwashed eggs, experimentally inoculated on the shell with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and stored at 5 and 25 o C for 30 days. A total of 384 eggs, classified as large, from light Dekalb White laying hens at 30 to 40 weeks of age, were used. The experimental design consisted of two blocks in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (contamination, washing, and refrigeration) with six replicates. The sanitization was performed by mechanical washing (hot water with chlorhexidine 20% and 8% active content). Eggs were contaminated by handling with 1.5 × 10 5 colony-forming units (cfu) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa/mL solution, and stored at 5 and 25 o C for 30 days. Each ten days, analyses of the eggs were carried out, for the assessment of physical (egg weight, specific gravity, shell thickness, yolk, albumen and shell percentage, Haugh unit, yolk and albumen rates) and chemical (albumen and yolk pH) characteristics. There were interactions between sanitization, storage temperature and contamination. The cooling process maintained the egg internal quality even when there was contamination on the shell by Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculum. Cooling slows down the weight loss and promotes better internal physical and chemical quality of the eggs during the 30 days of storage regardless of the contamination and washing processes.
Non-ruminantsFull-length research article Effects of broiler breeder age on immune system development of progeny ABSTRACT -The objective of this study was to determine the effects that breeder age has on digestive and immune system development; the transfer of immunoglobulins to egg yolk, yolk sac, and neonate chicks; and the immune response of chicks up to 35 days old. Three ages (32, 42, and 52 weeks) of Hubbard breeders were studied with ages as treatments. A total of 425 eggs were weighed for each of the three treatments and incubated. After hatching, a total of 300 1-day-old chicks were used in each treatment. We studied the development of the gastrointestinal tract and immune system of progeny and IgY transfer from breeder to progeny. Chicks from 52-week-old breeders had greater gastrointestinal tract growth up to seven days of life and greater body weight at 14 days. Older breeders (52 weeks) had higher amounts of IgY in serum and egg yolk. Chicks from the youngest breeders (32-weeks-old) had a better immune response at two weeks post-vaccination. It can be concluded that the older breeders have a greater capacity to immunize progeny up to 14 days. Strategies can be developed to increase IgY in the serum of young breeders and, consequently, increase the innate immunity of the newly-hatched chicks.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible methionine and cystine (Met + Cys) levels on the hematological and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens during the initial and growth stages. For this, 1,800 male chicks of the Coob 500 strain were used, with 900 chicks in the initial phase (1 to 21 days old) and 900 chicks in the growth phase (22 to 42 days old), distributed in a completely randomized design of five treatments with six replicates of 30 birds. The treatments consisted of 0.545, 0.616, 0.711, 0.782, and 0.853%; and 0.514, 0.571, 0.647, 0.704, and 0.761% digestible Met + Cys for “1 to 21” and “22 to 42” days of breeding, respectively. Results showed that digestible Met + Cys levels in broiler feed altered some hematological parameters (erythrocyte, hematocrit hemoglobin, total leukocytes, heterophile: lymphocyte) and serum biochemistry (uric acid, PST, total LDL, and TG). The digestible Met + Cys levels in the diet of broilers affected the hematological parameters and serum biochemistry, especially at higher levels. From the inclusion level 0.761 of Met + Cist in the broiler diet, red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit changes begin to appear.
This study aimed to assess the effects of breeder age on egg quality and amino acid and mineral transfer to the egg yolk and yolk sac of newly hatched chicks. Three ages (32, 42 and 52 weeks) of the same commercial flock of Hubbard breeders were studied. A total of 465 eggs were used for each age, with 60 being used for determining egg quality and amino acid and mineral content of yolk, and 405 for incubation period to obtain and evaluate the yolk sac of chicks. Breeders aged 52 weeks had heavier eggs and a higher percentage of yolk (p < 0.05), whereas 32‐week‐old breeders had higher eggshell percentage and thickness (p < 0.05). The percentage of protein deposited in egg yolk for 52‐week‐old breeders was higher than that for 32‐ and 42‐week‐old breeders (p < 0.05). Percentages of methionine, cysteine, met + cysteine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, arginine and isoleucine in egg yolk for 32‐week‐old breeders were higher than that for 42‐ and 52‐week‐old breeders (p < 0.05). The transfer from breeder of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc to the yolk of eggs from 32‐week‐old breeders was greater than that for eggs from 42‐ and 52‐week‐old breeders (p < 0.05). Chicks from 32‐week‐old breeders had greater deposition of phosphorus and calcium in the yolk sac (p < 0.05). Breeder age did not affect the deposition of potassium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc in the yolk sac of newly hatch chicks (p > 0.05). It can, however, be concluded that younger breeders deposit more amino acids and minerals in egg yolk, while embryos of older breeders seem to use the nutrients present in the yolk more efficiently during embryonic development.
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