The effect of intra-bone injection of differentiated rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) into the femur of osteoporotic female rats was studied. Osteoporosis was induced in Wistar female rats by bilateral ovariectomy. Then, 0.75 million BMMSCs isolated from healthy rats were injected into the femurs of osteoporotic rats. Histomorphometric analysis and histology clearly revealed improvements in the treated group as compared to untreated group. In 2 months, the femurs of treated rats, unlike untreated rats, showed trabecular bone percentage almost similar to the femurs from control healthy rats. To confirm the origin of newly formed bone, the experiment was repeated with BMMSCs isolated from green fluorescent protein transgenic rats. Confocal microscopy demonstrated green fluorescent protein-positive cells at the surface of trabecular bone of the treated rats. We investigated in vitro osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs isolated from osteoporotic rats by studying alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen synthesis, and the ability to form mineralized nodules. Osteoporotic BMMSCs showed less differentiation capabilities as compared to those isolated from healthy rats. The results clearly demonstrated the importance of BMMSCs in osteoporosis and that the disease can be treated by injection of BMMSCs.
The objective of this study was to evaluate fetal weight, histomorphometric changes and proliferative activity, apoptosis and angiogenesis of the placenta in rats with hypothyroidism. Thirty-six adult female rats were divided into two groups with 18 animals each: control and hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism was induced by daily administration of propylthiouracil (1 mg/animal). The administration began five days before becoming pregnant and the animals were sacrificed at 14 or 19 days of gestation. The control group received a placebo. The number and weight of fetuses and the rate of fetal death was determined, as well as the morphometric characteristics, the immunohistochemical expression of cell division control protein 47 (CDC)-47 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the number of apoptotic cells in the placental disk. The data were analysed by Mann-Whitney U test. Hypothyroidism reduced the weight of fetuses and of the uterus and placenta (P<0.05), altered the thickness of the placental labyrinth and spongiotrophoblast (P<0.05), increased the population of glycogen cells in the spongiotrophoblast (P<0.05), interfered with the vascular development of the placental labyrinth and decreased VEGF expression (P<0.05), reduced the expression of CDC-47 and cellularity and increased the apoptotic rate in the placental disk (P<0.05). We conclude that hypothyroidism affects fetal weight by altering the proliferative activity, apoptosis and vascularisation of the placenta.
Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the dose-dependent effects of triiodothyronine (T3) on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs). Methods: MSCs that express CD73, CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) and CD90 were cultured in triplicate (1 × 105/well) in osteogenic medium with T3 (1, 10, 103 or 105 pM) or without T3 (control) for 7, 14 and 21 days. Alkaline phosphatase activity, conversion of MTT into formazan crystals, collagen synthesis, collagen maturation, the number of mineralized nodules and their diameters were all determined, and the means were compared by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Results: A dose of 105 pM T3 resulted in a negative effect on MSC osteogenic differentiation, with less collagen synthesis. The 1 pM T3 dose resulted in greater collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase activity and more mineralized nodules than in the control group, similar to the 10 pM dose. Nevertheless, the 10 pM dose demonstrated better results than the 1 pM dose with regard to MSC osteogenic differentiation, with greater MTT reduction, better collagen maturation and a larger mean diameter of mineralized nodules. Conclusions: The effect of T3 on MSC differentiation is dose-dependent, with the 10 pM dose promoting better bone marrow MSC osteogenic differentiation.
SummaryDue to an inadequate knowledge about threats to the sea turtle, we aimed to evaluate the helminth fauna of Chelonia mydas which had died on the southern coast of Espirito Santo, Brasil and described the associated tissue pathological lesions. Retrospective and prospective studies on turtle parasites were conducted and tissues samples were collected. 106 of 212 of sea turtles (50 %) were parasitized, and 47 of 106 of infected animals 43.0 % (47/106) were in poor health condition. Seven trematoda families covering 19 different helminths species were identifi ed. Turtles were inhabited with one or more species of parasites, and there was no signifi cant association between parasitism and weakness of the animals. Trematode eggs, with or without giant cells in tissues of various organs were observed.
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