1] The International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) released its first gridded bathymetric compilation in 1999. The IBCAO bathymetric portrayals have since supported a wide range of Arctic science activities, for example, by providing constraint for ocean circulation models and the means to define and formulate hypotheses about the geologic origin of Arctic undersea features. IBCAO Version 3.0 represents the largest improvement since 1999 taking advantage of new data sets collected by the circum-Arctic nations, opportunistic data collected from fishing vessels, data acquired from US Navy submarines and from research ships of various nations. Built using an improved gridding algorithm, this new grid is on a 500 meter spacing, revealing much greater details of the Arctic seafloor than IBCAO Version 1.0 (2.5 km) and Version 2.0 (2.0 km). The area covered by multibeam surveys has increased from $6% in Version 2.0 to $11% in Version 3.0.
In all 3 data sources, psychotropic medications prescribed for preschoolers increased dramatically between 1991 and 1995. The predominance of medications with off-label (unlabeled) indications calls for prospective community-based, multidimensional outcome studies.
Youth psychotropic treatment utilization during the 1990s nearly reached adult utilization rates. Youth findings can be used to accurately assess the duration of treatment and unforeseen practice pattern changes, and to identify safety concerns.
Underwater gas and liquid escape from the seafloor has long been treated as a mere curiosity. It was only after the advent of the side‐scan sonar and the subsequent discovery of pockmarks that the scale of fluid escape and the moon‐like terrain on parts of the ocean floor became generally known. Today, pockmarks ranging in size from the ‘unit pockmark’ (1–10 m wide, < 0.6 m deep) to the normal pockmark (10–700 m wide, up to 45 m deep) are known to occur in most seas, oceans, lakes and in many diverse geological settings.
In addition to indicating areas of the seabed that are ‘hydraulically active’, pockmarks are known to occur on continental slopes with gas hydrates and in association with slides and slumps. However, possibly their potentially greatest significance is as an indicator of deep fluid pressure build‐up prior to earthquakes. Whereas only a few locations containing active (bubbling) pockmarks are known, those that become active a few days prior to major earthquakes may be important precursors that have been overlooked.
Pockmark fields and individual pockmarks need to be instrumented with temperature and pressure sensors, and monitoring should continue over years. The scale of such research calls for a multinational project in several pockmark fields in various geological settings.
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) establishes lifelong latency in peripheral neurons where productive replication is suppressed. While periodic reactivation results in virus production, the molecular basis of neuronal latency remains incompletely understood. Using a primary neuronal culture system of HSV-1 latency and reactivation, we show that continuous signaling through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) pathway triggered by nerve growth factor (NGF)-binding to the TrkA receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is instrumental in maintaining latent HSV-1. The PI3-K p110α catalytic subunit, but not the β or δ isoforms, is specifically required to activate 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and sustain latency. Disrupting this pathway leads to virus reactivation. EGF and GDNF, two other growth factors capable of activating PI3-K and PDK1 but that differ from NGF in their ability to persistently activate Akt, do not fully support HSV-1 latency. Thus the nature of RTK-signaling is a critical host parameter that regulates the HSV-1 latent-lytic switch.
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