Background: So far, there has been no tool to estimate activity at diagnosis and predict all-cause mortality in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Hence, we determined the initial predictors of them in patients with AAV.
Methods:We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 182 patients with AAV. Severe AAV was defined as Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) ≥ 16.The cutoffs were extrapolated by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve.The odds ratio (OR) and the relative risk (RR) were assessed using the multivariable logistic regression analysis and the chi-square test, respectively.
Results:In the comparison analysis, patients with severe AAV exhibited the higher neutrophil and platelet counts, creatinine, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, and the lower lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, and serum albumin than those without. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, creatinine ≥ 0.9 mg/dL (OR 2.264), lymphocyte count ≤ 1430.0/mm 3 (OR 1.856), and hemoglobin ≤ 10.8 g/ dL (OR 2.085) were associated with severe AAV. We developed a new equation of a multivariable index for AAV (MVIA) = 0.6 × (Lymphocyte count ≤ 1430.0/mm 3 ) + 0. 7 × (Hemoglobin ≤ 10.8 g/dL) + 0.8 × (Creatinine ≥ 0.9 mg/dL). The optimal cutoff of MVIA for severe AAV was set as 1.35. Severe AAV was identified more frequently in patients with MVIA at diagnosis ≥1.35 than those without (RR 4.432). Patients with MVIA at diagnosis ≥1.35 exhibited the lower cumulative patient survival rate than those without.
Conclusion:Multivariable index for AAV could assess the cross-sectional activity and predict all-cause mortality in patients with AAV.
Negative differential resistance (NDR) in NbOx films attracts attention for potential application in neuromorphic computing. A continuous S‐type and abrupt snapback NDR characteristics are reported for NbOx devices. The NDR characteristics are expected to depend on the nature of the switching path in NbOx. Previous NDR studies have been performed mainly on amorphous NbOx films with an electroforming process to create a switching path. Herein, the NDR characteristics of a forming‐free NbOx device with crystalline NbO2 phases are investigated and these are compared with those of an amorphous NbOx device with forming. The forming‐free NbOx device exhibits a secondary abrupt snapback NDR in addition to the initial S‐type NDR, possibly due to a metal–insulator transition in the NbO2 phases. Meanwhile, the amorphous NbOx devices only show a continuous S‐type behavior.
The implementation of ultrahigh‐density cross‐point array structures has received considerable interest as emerging storage devices, and threshold switching devices are regarded to be promising as to the suppression of leakage current in cross‐point array structures. Threshold switching devices need to modulate the threshold voltage (Vth) depending on the various memory elements to achieve proper selector device in cross‐point array structures. However, only limited methods are available for controlling Vth. Therefore, the nitrogen (N) doping effects on trap states, density of localized states, and Vth of the amorphous Ga2Te3 (a‐Ga2Te3) selector devices are investigated herein. Furthermore, the electrical conduction behavior is fitted using a trap‐controlled space charge limited conduction mechanism with two transition voltages, i.e., the space charge limited voltage (VSCL) and trap‐filled limited voltage (VTFL). The optical bandgap energy and optical Urbach energy are affected by the N doping in a‐Ga2Te3. In addition, N doping in a‐Ga2Te3 increases the density of localized states. These effects increase both the transition voltages (VSCL and VTFL). Thus, doping a‐Ga2Te3 with N reduces Vth when the trap states are changed. Furthermore, N‐doped a‐Ga2Te3 selector devices exhibit highly reliable switching up to 109 cycles.
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