Summary There is substantial heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, evident in the spectrum of molecular abnormalities and its variable clinical course. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we present a comprehensive molecular analysis of 333 primary prostate carcinomas. Our results revealed a molecular taxonomy in which 74% of these tumors fell into one of seven subtypes defined by specific gene fusions (ERG, ETV1/4, FLI1) or mutations (SPOP, FOXA1, IDH1). Epigenetic profiles showed substantial heterogeneity, including an IDH1-mutant subset with a methylator phenotype. Androgen receptor (AR) activity varied widely and in a subtype-specific manner with SPOP and FOXA1 mutant tumors having the highest levels of AR-induced transcripts. 25% of the prostate cancers had a presumed actionable lesion in the PI3K or MAPK signaling pathways, and DNA repair genes were inactivated in 19%. Our analysis reveals molecular heterogeneity among primary prostate cancers, as well as potentially actionable molecular defects.
Summary We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations of 66 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs) based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and whole genome sequencing. The result is consistent that ChRCC originates from the distal nephron compared to other kidney cancers with more proximal origins. Combined mtDNA and gene expression analysis implicates changes in mitochondrial function as a component of the disease biology, while suggesting alternative roles for mtDNA mutations in cancers relying on oxidative phosphorylation. Genomic rearrangements lead to recurrent structural breakpoints within TERT promoter region, which correlates with highly elevated TERT expression and manifestation of kataegis, representing a mechanism of TERT up-regulation in cancer distinct from previously-observed amplifications and point mutations.
BackgroundTreatment of mild-moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) subjects (N = 119) for 52 weeks with the SIRT1 activator resveratrol (up to 1 g by mouth twice daily) attenuates progressive declines in CSF Aβ40 levels and activities of daily living (ADL) scores.MethodsFor this retrospective study, we examined banked CSF and plasma samples from a subset of AD subjects with CSF Aβ42 <600 ng/ml (biomarker-confirmed AD) at baseline (N = 19 resveratrol-treated and N = 19 placebo-treated). We utilized multiplex Xmap technology to measure markers of neurodegenerative disease and metalloproteinases (MMPs) in parallel in CSF and plasma samples.ResultsCompared to the placebo-treated group, at 52 weeks, resveratrol markedly reduced CSF MMP9 and increased macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), interleukin (IL)-4, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2. Compared to baseline, resveratrol increased plasma MMP10 and decreased IL-12P40, IL12P70, and RANTES. In this subset analysis, resveratrol treatment attenuated declines in mini-mental status examination (MMSE) scores, change in ADL (ADCS-ADL) scores, and CSF Aβ42 levels during the 52-week trial, but did not alter tau levels.ConclusionsCollectively, these data suggest that resveratrol decreases CSF MMP9, modulates neuro-inflammation, and induces adaptive immunity. SIRT1 activation may be a viable target for treatment or prevention of neurodegenerative disorders.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT01504854
Background Tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the interleukin-6 receptor, has been proposed to mitigate the cytokine storm syndrome associated with severe COVID-19. We aimed to investigate the association between tocilizumab exposure and hospital-related mortality among patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) support for COVID-19. Methods We did a retrospective observational cohort study at 13 hospitals within the Hackensack Meridian Health network (NJ, USA). We included patients (aged ≥18 years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who needed support in the ICU. We obtained data from a prospective observational database and compared outcomes in patients who received tocilizumab with those who did not. We applied a multivariable Cox model with propensity score matching to reduce confounding effects. The primary endpoint was hospital-related mortality. The prospective observational database is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT04347993 . Findings Between March 1 and April 22, 2020, 764 patients with COVID-19 required support in the ICU, of whom 210 (27%) received tocilizumab. Factors associated with receiving tocilizumab were patients' age, gender, renal function, and treatment location. 630 patients were included in the propensity score-matched population, of whom 210 received tocilizumab and 420 did not receive tocilizumab. 358 (57%) of 630 patients died, 102 (49%) who received tocilizumab and 256 (61%) who did not receive tocilizumab. Overall median survival from time of admission was not reached (95% CI 23 days–not reached) among patients receiving tocilizumab and was 19 days (16–26) for those who did not receive tocilizumab (hazard ratio [HR] 0·71, 95% CI 0·56–0·89; p=0·0027). In the primary multivariable Cox regression analysis with propensity matching, an association was noted between receiving tocilizumab and decreased hospital-related mortality (HR 0·64, 95% CI 0·47–0·87; p=0·0040). Similar associations with tocilizumab were noted among subgroups requiring mechanical ventilatory support and with baseline C-reactive protein of 15 mg/dL or higher. Interpretation In this observational study, patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU support who received tocilizumab had reduced mortality. Results of ongoing randomised controlled trials are awaited. Funding None.
Background: We evaluated the effects of low doses of the tyrosine kinase Abelson (Abl) inhibitor Nilotinib, on safety and pharmacokinetics in Parkinson’s disease dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies.Objectives: The primary outcomes of this study were safety and tolerability; pharmacokinetics and target engagement were secondary, while clinical outcomes were exploratory.Methods: Twelve subjects were randomized into 150 mg (n = 5) or 300 mg (n = 7) groups and received Nilotinib orally every day for 24 weeks.Results: This study shows that 150 mg and 300 mg doses of Nilotinib appear to be safe and tolerated in subjects with advanced Parkinson’s disease. Nilotinib is detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and seems to engage the target Abl. Motor and cognitive outcomes suggest a possible beneficial effect on clinical outcomes. The CSF levels of homovanillic acid are significantly increased between baseline and 24 weeks of treatment. Exploratory CSF biomarkers were measured.Conclusions: This small proof-of-concept study lacks a placebo group and participants were not homogenous, resulting in baseline differences between and within groups. This limits the interpretations of the biomarker and clinical data, and any conclusions should be drawn cautiously. Nonetheless, the collective observations suggest that it is warranted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Nilotinib in larger randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.
IMPORTANCE This study evaluated nilotinib safety and its effects on biomarkers as a potential disease-modifying drug in Parkinson disease.OBJECTIVES To assess nilotinib effects on safety and pharmacokinetics and measure the change in exploratory biomarkers in patients with moderately severe Parkinson disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTSThis was a single-center, phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 300 patients approached in clinic; of these, 200 declined to participate, 100 were screened, 25 were excluded, and 75 were randomized 1:1:1 into placebo; nilotinib, 150-mg; or nilotinib, 300-mg groups. Recruitment started on May 17, 2017, and ended April 28, 2018, and follow-up ended August 10, 2019. Parkinson disease was confirmed according to the UK Brain Bank diagnostic criteria and symptoms were stabilized with use of optimal levodopa and/or dopamine agonists and other medications used in Parkinson disease.INTERVENTIONS Nilotinib vs placebo, administered orally once daily for 12 months followed by a 3-month washout period.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES It was hypothesized that nilotinib is safe and can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid, where it alters exploratory biomarkers via inhibition of Abelson tyrosine kinase and potentially improves clinical outcomes. RESULTSOf the 75 patients included in the study, 55 were men (73.3%); mean (SD) age was 68.4 (8.2) years. Doses of 150 or 300 mg of nilotinib were reasonably safe, although more serious adverse events were detected in the nilotinib (150 mg: 6 [24%]; 300 mg: 12 [48%]) vs placebo (4 [16%]) groups. The 150-mg nilotinib group showed an increase in cerebrospinal fluid levels of the dopamine metabolites homovanillic acid (159.80nM; 90% CI, 7.04-312.60nM; P = .04) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (4.87nM; 90% CI, 1.51-8.23nM; P = .01), and the 300-mg nilotinib group showed an increase in 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (7.52nM; 90% CI, 2.35-12.69nM; P = .01). The nilotinib 150-mg but not the nilotinib 300-mg group demonstrated a reduction of α-synuclein oligomers (−0.04 pg/mL; 90% CI, −0.08 to 0.01 pg/mL; P = .03). A significant reduction of hyperphosphorylated tau levels was seen in the nilotinib 150-mg (−10.04 pg/mL; 90% CI, −17.41 to −2.67 pg/mL; P = .01) and nilotinib 300-mg (−12.05 pg/mL; 90% CI, −19.21 to −4.90 pg/mL; P = .01) groups.CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this study, nilotinib appeared to be reasonably safe and detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid. Exploratory biomarkers were altered in response to nilotinib. Taken together, these data will guide the development of a phase 3 study to investigate the effects of nilotinib therapy in patients with Parkinson disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02954978
Nilotinib is a broad‐based tyrosine kinase inhibitor with the highest affinity to inhibit Abelson (c‐Abl) and discoidin domain receptors ( DDR 1/2). Preclinical evidence indicates that Nilotinib reduces the level of brain alpha‐synuclein and attenuates inflammation in models of Parkinson's disease ( PD ). We previously showed that Nilotinib penetrates the blood‐brain barrier ( BBB ) and potentially improves clinical outcomes in individuals with PD and dementia with Lewy bodies ( DLB ). We performed a physiologically based population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (pop PK / PD ) study to determine the effects of Nilotinib in a cohort of 75 PD participants. Participants were randomized (1:1:1:1:1) into five groups (n = 15) and received open‐label random single dose ( RSD ) 150:200:300:400 mg Nilotinib vs placebo. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid ( CSF ) were collected at 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after Nilotinib administration. The results show that Nilotinib enters the brain in a dose‐independent manner and 200 mg Nilotinib increases the level of 3,4‐Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ( DOPAC ) and homovanillic acid ( HVA ), suggesting alteration to dopamine metabolism. Nilotinib significantly reduces plasma total alpha‐synuclein and appears to reduce CSF oligomeric: total alpha‐synuclein ratio. Furthermore, Nilotinib significantly increases the CSF level of triggering receptors on myeloid cells ( TREM )‐2, suggesting an anti‐inflammatory effect. Taken together, 200 mg Nilotinib appears to be an optimal single dose that concurrently reduces inflammation and engages surrogate disease biomarkers, including dopamine metabolism and alpha‐synuclein.
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is displayed by approximately 15% of colorectal cancers (CRC). Defective DNA mismatch repair generates mutations at repetitive DNA sequences such as those located in the double strand break (DSB) repair gene MRE11. We assessed the mutational status of MRE11 in a panel of 17 CRC cell lines and 46 primary tumors and found a strong correlation with MSI status in both cell lines and tumors. Therefore, we hypothesized that deficiency in MRE11 may sensitize CRC cells to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) inhibition based on the concept of synthetic lethality. We further assessed the activity of the PARP-1 inhibitor, ABT-888, in CRC cell lines and observed preferential cytotoxicity in those MSI cell lines harboring mutations in MRE11 compared with both wild-type cell lines and microsatellite stable (MSS) cell lines. A significant correlation between MRE11 expression levels and cytotoxicity to ABT-888 at 10 mM was observed (R 2 ¼ 0.915, P < 0.001). Using two experimental approaches, including short hairpin RNA knocking down MRE11 in the wild-type and MSS cell line SW-480 and a second cell line model transfected with mutant MRE11, we experimentally tried to confirm the role of MRE11 in conferring sensitivity to PARP-1 inhibition. Both models led to changes in proliferation in response to ABT-888 at different concentrations, and a drug-response effect was not observed, suggesting a possible contribution of additional genes. We conclude that MSI colorectal tumors deficient in DSB repair secondary to mutation in MRE11 show a higher sensitivity to PARP-1 inhibition. Further clinical investigation of PARP-1 inhibitors is warranted in MSI CRCs. Cancer Res; 71(7); 2632-42. Ó2011 AACR.
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