As demands for high pixel densities and wearable forms of displays increase, high-resolution printing technologies to achieve high performance transistors beyond current amorphous silicon levels and to allow low-temperature solution processability for plastic substrates have been explored as key processes in emerging flexible electronics. This study describes electrohydrodynamic inkjet (e-jet) technology for direct printing of oxide semiconductor thin film transistors (TFTs) with high resolution (minimum line width: 2 μm) and superb performance, including high mobility (∼230 cm V s). Logic operations of the amplifier circuits composed of these e-jet-printed metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) TFTs demonstrate their high performance. Printed InO TFTs with e-jet printing-assisted high-resolution S/D electrodes were prepared, and the direct printing of passivation layers on these channels enhanced their gate-bias stabilities significantly. Moreover, low process temperatures (<250 °C) enable the use of thin plastic substrates; highly flexible and stretchable TFT arrays have been demonstrated, suggesting promise for next-generation printed electronics.
A low-jitter, ring-type voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO)-based injection-locked clock multiplier (ILCM) with a continuous frequency-tracking loop (FTL) for process-voltagetemperature (PVT)-calibration is presented. Using a single replica-delay cell of the VCO that provides the intrinsic phase information of the free-running VCO, the proposed FTL can continuously track and correct frequency drifts. Therefore, the proposed ILCM can calibrate real-time frequency drifts due to voltage or temperature variations as well as static frequency deviations due to process variations. Since the FTL provided an additional filtering of in-band VCO noise, the ILCM was able to achieve excellent jitter performance over the PVT variations, while it was based on a ring-VCO. The proposed ILCM was fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS process. When injection locked, the RMS-jitter integrated from 10 kHz to 40 MHz of the 1.20 GHz output signal was 185 fs. The proposed PVT-calibrator regulated the degradations of jitter to less than 5% and 7% over temperatures and supply voltages, respectively. The active area was 0.06 mm 2 and total power consumption was 9.5 mW.
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