Preoperative exercise therapy can be effective for reducing postoperative complication rates and length of hospital stay after cardiac or abdominal surgery. More research on the utility of preoperative exercise therapy and its long-term effects is needed as well as insight in the benefits of using risk models.
A short, tailor-made, exercise programme is well tolerated and appreciated in elderly patients awaiting total hip replacement. However, a larger randomized clinical trial in the same setting is not warranted, because of the high number of eligible non-volunteers.
Purpose of reviewAdvances in medical care have led to an increasing elderly population. Elderly individuals should be able to participate in society as long as possible. However, with an increasing age their adaptive capacity gradually decreases, specially before and after major life events (like hospitalization and surgery) making them vulnerable to reduced functioning and societal participation. Therapeutic exercise before and after surgery might augment the postoperative outcomes by improving functional status and reducing the complication and mortality rate.Recent findingsThere is high quality evidence that preoperative exercise in patients scheduled for cardiovascular surgery is well tolerated and effective. Moreover, there is circumstantial evidence suggesting preoperative exercise for thoracic, abdominal and major joint replacement surgery is effective, provided that this is offered to the high-risk patients. Postoperative exercise should be initiated as soon as possible after surgery according to fast-track or enhanced recovery after surgery principles.SummaryThe perioperative exercise training protocol known under the name ‘Better in, Better out’ could be implemented in clinical care for the vulnerable group of patients scheduled for major elective surgery who are at risk for prolonged hospitalization, complications and/or death. Future research should aim to include this at-risk group, evaluate perioperative high-intensity exercise interventions and conduct adequately powered trials.
Preoperative physical exercise is emerging as a growing field of research globally. There are still challenges in recruiting vulnerable older people, and time constraints in preoperative cancer care to consider. We therefore evaluated the feasibility of short-term supervised home-based exercise in older people prior to colorectal cancer surgery. This feasibility study was conducted between September 2016 and June 2018. People ≥70 years scheduled for colorectal cancer surgery were recruited and randomized to an intervention group receiving supervised home-based physical exercise at a high level of estimated exertion or a standard care group following the standard preoperative path. The exercise (respiratory, strength, and aerobic) consisted of 2–3 supervised sessions a week in the participants’ homes, for at least 2–3 weeks or until surgery, and a self-administered exercise program in between. The primary outcome was process feasibility, including aspects specifically related to recruitment rate, compliance to the intervention, and acceptability. The secondary outcome was scientific feasibility including treatment safety, description of dose level and response, and estimation of treatment results. Twenty-three participants were included (recruitment rate 35%). A median of 6 supervised sessions was conducted over a 17-day exercise period. Compliance with the supervised sessions was 97%, and participants found the intervention acceptable. Concerning the self-administered exercise, a median of 19 inspiratory muscle training, 6 functional strength, and 8.5 aerobic sessions were reported. Challenges reported by program instructors were time constraints and difficulties in achieving high exercise intensities on the Borg CR-10 scale. A statistically significant between-group difference was only found in inspiratory muscle strength, favoring the intervention group (p<0.01). A short-term preoperative supervised home-based physical exercise intervention can be conducted, with respect to compliance and acceptability, in older people with similar physical status as in this study prior to colorectal cancer surgery. However, modifications are warranted with respect to improving recruitment rates and achieving planned intensity levels prior to conducting a definitive trial.
SummaryWe studied whether reported physical activity and measurements of fitness (hand, leg and inspiration) were associated with postoperative in-hospital mortality, length of stay and discharge destination in 169 patients after major oncological abdominal surgery. In multivariate analysis, adequate activity level (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.4-21.9) and inspiratory muscle endurance (OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.4-19.1) were independently associated with short-term mortality, whereas conventional factors, such as age and heart disease, were not. Adequate activity level (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.4-3.0) was also independently associated with discharge destination. The factors that were independently associated with a shorter length of hospital stay were as follows: absence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.1); adequate activity level (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.8); and inspiratory muscle strength (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.9). For all postoperative outcomes physical activity and fitness significantly improved the predictive value compared with known risk factors, such as age and comorbidities. We conclude that pre-operative questionnaires of physical activity and measurements of fitness contribute to the prediction of postoperative outcomes.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.