PPP is related to both patient and surgical factors. Patients with a high preoperative AAS score and high pain response to a standardized heat stimulus may preferably be treated using an operative technique with lowest risk for nerve damage.
SPEF2 is expressed in all ciliated cells and is essential for correct sperm tail development and male fertility. We have previously identified a mutation within the SPEF2 gene as the cause for infertility because of immotile and malformed sperm tails in pigs. This mutation in pigs alters the testis-specific long SPEF2 isoform and exclusively affects the sperm tail development. In infertile boars, axonemal and all accessory structures of the sperm tail are affected; thus, SPEF2 seems to participate in the organization of these structures. In the present study, we have investigated the expression of SPEF2 during mouse spermatogenesis. SPEF2 mRNA and protein products appear to be localized both in germ cells and in Sertoli cells. In differentiating germ cells, SPEF2 protein is localized in the Golgi complex, manchette, basal body, and midpiece of the sperm tail. In mature murine sperm, SPEF2 is present in the distal part of the sperm tail midpiece. Using yeast two-hybrid assay and coimmunoprecipitation experiments, we identified an interaction between SPEF2 and the intraflagellar transport protein IFT20 in the testis. Furthermore, these two proteins colocalize in differentiating male germ cells. These results support the crucial importance of SPEF2 in sperm differentiation and involvement of SPEF2 in structuring of the sperm tail.
FDG-PET/CT was accurate in diagnosing recurrence in breast cancer patients. It allowed for distant recurrence to be correctly ruled out and resulted in only a small number of false-positive cases. Exploratory findings suggest that FDG-PET/CT has greater accuracy than conventional imaging technologies in this patient group.
In the setting of a well-defined analgesic protocol standard, VAS AUC analysis and a mixed-effect analysis showed superior analgesia of capsaicin relative to placebo during the first 3-4 days after inguinal hernia repair.
Herein we describe the first structure-activity relationship study of the broad-range iGluR antagonist (2S,3R)-3-(3-carboxyphenyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (1) by exploring the pharmacological effect of substituents in the 4, 4', or 5' positions and the bioisosteric substitution of the distal carboxylic acid for a phosphonic acid moiety. Of particular interest is a hydroxyl group in the 4' position 2a which induced a preference in binding affinity for homomeric GluK3 over GluK1 (Ki = 0.87 and 4.8 μM, respectively). Two X-ray structures of ligand binding domains were obtained: 2e in GluA2-LBD and 2f in GluK1-LBD, both at 1.9 Å resolution. Compound 2e induces a D1-D2 domain opening in GluA2-LBD of 17.3-18.8° and 2f a domain opening in GluK1-LBD of 17.0-17.5° relative to the structures with glutamate. The pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate moiety of 2e and 2f shows a similar binding mode as kainate. The 3-carboxyphenyl ring of 2e and 2f forms contacts comparable to those of the distal carboxylate in kainate.
Pre-operative groin hernia pain is not related to findings of hyperalgesia or other changes in sensory function that may support pain-induced pre-operative neuroplasticity as a pathogenic mechanism for the development of persistent postherniotomy pain.
Uptake of the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, (S)-glutamate, is mediated by a family of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT). Previously we have explored the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a series of EAAT1 selective inhibitors, leading to the development of the potent inhibitors UCPH-101 and UCPH-102. In the present study, we set out to improve the solubility properties of these EAAT1 inhibitors with the objective to develop analogs more suited as pharmacological tools for in vivo studies of EAAT1 in terms of their bioavailability. A total of 23 novel UCPH-101/102 analogs were designed, synthesized and characterized pharmacologically at EAAT1-3 in a [(3)H]-D-aspartate uptake assay. Most notably, the potent EAAT1 inhibition displayed of UCPH-101 and UCPH-102 was retained in analog 1d in which the napht-1-yl group in the 7-position of UCPH-102 has been replaced by an o-biphenyl moiety. In contrast, EAAT1 activity was dramatically compromised in analogs 1e and 1f comprising m- and p-biphenyl groups as 7-substituents, respectively. Analog 1d displayed low bioavailability after oral administration in rats, and this problem was addressed by the synthesis of a series of analogs with different chloro, fluoro, methoxy, triflouromethyl and carboxy substitution patterns at the o-biphenyl group of 1d (1h-1s) and m- and p-pyridine analogs of 1d (1t and 1v). Unfortunately, all of the modifications resulted in substantial decreased EAAT1 inhibitory activity, which supports the notion of a very lipophilic binding pocket in EAAT1 for the aromatic 7-substituent in these ligands. In conclusion, while we have not succeeded in developing UCPH-101/102 analogs possessing improved bioavailability properties, this study does offer interesting SAR information about this inhibitor class, and analog 1d seems to be an interesting lead for future SAR studies with focus on the development of more potent EAAT1 inhibitors.
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