BackgroundLeishmaniasis includes a wide complex of diseases that affect humans and other mammals, and can range from a mild cutaneous form to a severe visceral type. The safety of the standard treatment using pentavalent antimony is a concern due to its toxic effects. The search for alternative, effective and less toxic treatments has led to the testing of natural products. The present study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic, leishmanicidal and healing potential of Arrabidaea chica.MethodsThe crude ethanolic extract, as well as the chloroform, methanol and ethyl acetate fractions of A. chica were prepared and phytochemical analysis was performed. Cytotoxic evaluation was carried out through MTT colorimetric assay, and the 50 % cellular cytotoxicity was determined. After that, the effect of the extract and fractions against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes, at intervals of 24, 48 and 72 h, was analyzed, and 50 % inhibitory concentration was determined. The healing effect of the plant was also tested in surgical lesions in Swiss mice skin.ResultsPhytochemical screening showed that the crude extracts contained flavonoids, tannins, anthocyanidins and chalcones. The leishmanicidal potential of A. chica produced satisfactory results in concentrations of between 60 and 155.9 μg/mL. Cytotoxic assay revealed a 50 % reduction in viable cells at a concentration of 189.9 μg/mL. The healing results indicated that the treated group exhibited more pronounced signs of lesion resolution in the early period, but this pattern did not persist throughout the treatment.ConclusionsThe results of the present study demonstrate that A. chica has cytotoxic and leishmanicidal potential but its healing effect must be better studied.
Background and aim Nutrition impact symptoms (NIS) are common in cancer patients and the negative impacts on nutritional status indicate the need for research, diagnosis and nutritional intervention in order to reduce the risk of malnutrition. We aimed to verify the presence of malnutrition, the need for nutritional intervention, NIS and their influence on the nutritional status of surgical patients with cancer. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in a public tertiary hospital, from March 2017 to October 2019. Nutritional status, the need for nutritional intervention and NIS were assessed through the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) in the first 48 hours of hospital admission. Results Among the 135 patients evaluated, 55.6% were elderly and 51.1% were male; patients had a median age of 62 years and a predominance of cancer located in the lower gastrointestinal tract (35.6%). Malnutrition and the need for nutritional intervention were identified in 60.0% and 90.4% of cases, respectively. The presence of three or more NIS was reported by 51.9% of patients. Significant differences in NIS were observed according to sex, PG-SGA classification and PG-SGA score. After logistic regression analysis, it was determined that the symptoms that increased the chances of malnutrition were anorexia, constipation, strange taste, mouth sores and others (depression, dental or financial problems). Conclusion Malnutrition, the need for nutritional intervention and the presence of three or more NIS were elevated in the patients evaluated. Malnutrition was associated with the presence of NIS, indicating the need for attention and care in antineoplastic treatment.
The absence of an effective vaccine and the debilitating chemotherapy for Leishmaniasis demonstrate the need for developing alternative treatments. Several studies conducted with Morinda citrifolia have shown various biological activities, including antileishmanial activity, however its mechanisms of action are unknown. This study aimed to analyze the in vivo activity of M. citrifolia fruit juice (Noni) against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in C57BL/6 mice. M. citrifolia fruit juice from the Brazilian Amazon has shown the same constitution of other juices produced around the world and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis identified five compounds: deacetylasperulosidic acid, asperulosidic acid, rutin, nonioside B and nonioside C. Daily intragastric treatment with Noni was carried out after 55 days of L. (L.) amazonensis infection in C57BL/6 mice. Parasitic loads, cytokine and extracellular protein matrix expressions of the lesion site were analyzed by qPCR. Histopathology of the lesion site, lymph nodes and liver were performed to evaluate the inflammatory processes. Cytokines and biochemical parameters of toxicity from sera were also evaluated. The Noni treatment at 500 mg.kg-1.day-1 for 60 days decreased the lesion size and parasitic load in the footpad infected with L. (L.) amazonensis. The site of infection also showed decreased inflammatory infiltrates and decreased cytokine expressions for IL-12, TNF-α, TGF-β and IL-10. On the other hand, Noni treatment enhanced the extracellular matrix protein expressions of collagen IV, fibronectin and laminin in the infected footpad as well collagen I and II, fibronectin and laminin in the mock-infected footpads. No toxicity was observed at the end of treatment. These data show the efficacy of Noni treatment.
Species of the Vernonia genius are widely distributed across the world. In traditional communities, they are commonly used in popular medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Vernonia polysphaera Baker hydroalcoholic extract. A λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema and peritonitis model was established in BALB/c mice. The in vitro activity of the extract was measured on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. There was no toxic effect on mice or on the cells treated with the extract. Animals treated with V. polysphaera extract demonstrated inhibition of paw edema in comparison with the untreated animals at all the analyzed doses. In peritonitis, treatment with the extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg resulted in a lower total leukocyte count in the peritoneal fluid and blood and lower levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE-2 than the control group. Cells treated with 50 and 100 μg/mL of the extract exhibited lower levels of nitrite and pro-inflammatory cytokine production and lower COX-2, NF-κB expression. The V. polysphaera extract demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect, interfering with cell migration, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and COX-2 expression and consequent interference with PGE-2, as well as inhibiting NF-κB transcription.
Background Dynapenia is defined as an age-related loss of muscle strength. There is little information on dynapenia in cancer patients and on how it relates to anthropometric variables. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of dynapenia and its association with anthropometric variables in hospitalized cancer patients. Methods Participants comprised adult and elderly cancer patients evaluated within the first 48 h of hospital admission to a tertiary public hospital, a referral center for gastrointestinal tract surgery. Anthropometric variables were measured according to standardized protocols. Dynapenia was identified based on handgrip strength (HGS), according to the cutoff points defined by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2), with values for women < 16 kg and for men < 27 kg. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 22.0, with a significance level of 5%. Results This study included 158 patients aged in average 59.5 ± 14.0 years; of these, 53.6% were elderly, 58.9% non-white and 59.5% had some degree of malnutrition. The most prevalent type of cancer was that of the lower gastrointestinal tract (33.5%). The presence of dynapenia was observed in 23.4% of the patients and cachexia in 36.1%. There was an association between dynapenia with age (p < 0.001), life stage (p = 0.002) and race/color (p = 0.027), and also with body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.001) and adductor pollicis muscle thickness (APMT) of both hands (p < 0.05). After logistic regression analysis, adjusted for the sociodemographic variables, the APMT of the dominant hand and the low weight determined by body mass index remained associated with the occurrence of dynapenia (p < 0.05). Conclusions In this study we confirmed that dynapenia was present in cancer patients, being associated with APMT of the dominant hand and low weight. HSG was proven to be a reliable and complementary measure to be added to the process of assessing nutritional status, contributing to the nutritional diagnosis of these patients and to the detection of early muscle depletion.
ResumoEste trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o controle de helmintos gastrintestinais em ovinos de corte em um sistema de pastoreio Voisin em quatro estações do ano. Foi realizado no Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Universidade Passo Fundo no período de junho de 2005 a julho de 2006. Foram utilizados 84 fêmeas das raças Suffolk, Ile de France puras e mestiças as quais foram subdivididas em quatro grupos composto de 21 animais cada. Os grupos foram designados como G1 (ovelha tradicional), G2 (borrega tradicional) tratadas a cada 60 dias com Levamisole; os grupos G3 (ovelha Famacha®), e G4 (borrega Famacha®) foram avaliadas pelo método Famacha®. As variáveis analisadas foram peso vivo e ovos por grama de fezes (OPG). Em relação ao peso vivo não houve diferença estatística (P>0,05) entre borregas e ovelhas dos grupos tradicionais quando comparadas aos do método Famacha®. Ocorreram diferenças no OPG no decorrer das estações do ano para as borregas. Houve uma significativa redução na freqüência dos tratamentos pelo método Famacha® quando comparado ao método tradicional, de 90,39% para as borregas e 90,93% para as ovelhas, tornando este método uma alternativa viável. Palavras-chave: Ovinos, peso vivo, Famacha®, Haemonchus contortus, OPG AbstractThe objective of this work was to evaluate the control of nematode gastrintestinal on ovine meat breeds in Voisin pasturing system during one grazing year. The experiment was carried out at the Research Center Farm of the Passo Fundo University during the period of June 2005 to July 2006. The animals were kept in 85 pasture blocks with 810 square meters each. In the experiment 42 ewe hoggets and 42 Suffolk, Ile de France purebreed and crosses ewes were subdivided in four groups composed of 21 animals each. The groups had been assigned as G1 (traditional sheep), G2 (traditional young ewes) both treated every 60 days with Levamisole; the groups G3 (Famacha® sheep) and G4 (Famacha® young ewes) were evaluated by the Famacha® method. The following variables were evaluated: live weight and worm egg counts (EPG). In relation to the live weights it was proven that it did not have statistics difference (P>0,05) between ewe hoggets and adult sheep of the traditional groups when compared with the ones of the Famacha® method. Differences in EPG counts during of the year in the ewe hoggets were found it had a significant reduction in the frequency of treatments for the Famacha® method when compared with the traditional method, of 90,39% for ewe hoggets and 90.93% for the sheep, becoming this method a viable alternative.
Resumo:A busca por construir paisagens acolhedoras em tempos de sutileza na atenção em saúde mental repousa numa escolha ética e poética de se construir uma clínica. Este artigo trata de uma pesquisa que objetivou cartografar uma clínica corporal em saúde mental que se utilizou de práticas diversas nessa perspectiva de acolhimento e sutileza, dentro de um CAPS do tipo II, em Belém, PA. Dessas práticas, no caminho metodológico que percorremos, destacamos o trabalho com Danças Circulares Sagradas (DCS) na vivência de um Grupo de Trabalho Corporal do qual participaram 14 usuários do serviço entre os anos de 2010 e 2012. Lançamos mão da observação participante e dos registros em caderno de campo para localizar destaques na intensidade dos encontros cujas experimentações com as DCS colocamos em relevo. Os resultados evidenciam que nas rodas de DCS os usuários do serviço batalharam por seu espaço, compartilharam suas histórias, cederam e demandaram, afastando-se de quaisquer estereótipos de passividade, desmotivação ou vitimização que pudessem pairar sobre eles. À guisa de uma conclusão, as DCS subscrevem a emancipação dos dançantes de funcionamentos "esperados" para a dança, em um território que se constitui pelo dançar junto e pelo fazer com o outro que enriquece a experiência e sustenta as diferenças. As DCS no cotidiano dos CAPS reafirmam que ali não é lugar da doença mental mas da saúde mental, em que o relevo é a vida e o transtorno é apenas parte da existência. As DCS configuraram-se enquanto um lugar potencial de troca. Palavras-chave: Saúde Mental, Dança, Cartografia. Cozy landscapes in a time of subtleties: Resonance of dance in a body treatment clinic in mental health careAbstract: The quest to build cozy landscapes in times of subtleties in mental health care is based on an ethical and poetic choice to build a clinic. This study deals with research aimed at the cartography of a body treatment clinic in mental health that has used various practices in this perspective of coziness and subtleties within a Psychosocial Attendance Center (PSAC) -type II in Belém, Para state, Brazil. In the methodological path we have traveled in these practices, we would like to highlight the work with Sacred Circle Dances (SCD) in the experience of a Body Work Group involving 14 service users between 2010 and 2012. We resorted to participant observation and records in field notebook to find highlights in the intensity of meetings, especially regarding the experiments with dance.The results showed that, in Sacred Circle Dances, service users battled for their spaces, shared their stories, gave in and demanded, pulling away from any stereotype of passivity, and possible lack of motivation, or victimization. Paisagens acolhedoras em um tempo de sutilezas:Ressonâncias da dança em uma clínica corporal em saúde mental 1
Uso do aplicativo kahoot: uma ferramenta pedagógica para as aulas de química por intermediação tecnológica Kahoot application: a pedagogical tool for chemical classes by technological intermediation
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