Using a model for refractory clouds, a novel algorithm for handling them, and the latest gas-phase molecular opacities, we have produced a new series of L and T dwarf spectral and atmosphere models as a function of gravity and metallicity, spanning the \teff range from 2200 K to 700 K. The correspondence with observed spectra and infrared colors for early- and mid-L dwarfs and for mid- to late-T dwarfs is good. We find that the width in infrared color-magnitude diagrams of both the T and L dwarf branches is naturally explained by reasonable variations in gravity and, therefore, that gravity is the "second parameter" of the L/T dwarf sequence. We investigate the dependence of theoretical dwarf spectra and color-magnitude diagrams upon various cloud properties, such as particle size and cloud spatial distribution. In the region of the L$\to$T transition, we find that no one cloud-particle-size and gravity combination can be made to fit all the observed data. Furthermore, we note that the new, lower solar oxygen abundances of Allende-Prieto, Lambert, & Asplund (2002) produce better fits to brown dwarf data than do the older values. Finally, we discuss various issues in cloud physics and modeling and speculate on how a better correspondence between theory and observation in the problematic L$\to$T transition region might be achieved.Comment: accepted to the Astrophysical Journal, 21 figures (20 in color); spectral models in electronic form available at http://zenith.as.arizona.edu/~burrow
We calculate the theoretical evolution of the radii of all fourteen of the known transiting extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) for a variety of assumptions concerning atmospheric opacity, dense inner core masses, and possible internal power sources. We incorporate the effects of stellar irradiation and customize such effects for each EGP and star. Looking collectively at the family as a whole, we find that there are in fact two radius anomalies to be explained. Not only are the radii of a subset of the known transiting EGPs larger than expected from previous theory, but many of the other objects are smaller than the default theory would allow. We suggest that the larger EGPs can be explained by invoking enhanced atmospheric opacities that naturally retain internal heat. This explanation might obviate the necessity for an extra internal power source. We explain the smaller radii by the presence in perhaps all the known transiting EGPs of dense cores, such as have been inferred for Saturn and Jupiter. Importantly, we derive a rough correlation between the masses of our "best-fit" cores and the stellar metallicity that seems to buttress the core-accretion model of their formation. Though many caveats and uncertainties remain, the resulting comprehensive theory that incorporates enhanced-opacity atmospheres and dense cores is in reasonable accord with all the current structural data for the known transiting giant planets.Comment: 22 pages in emulateapj format, including 10 figures (mostly in color), accepted to the Astrophysical Journal (February 9, 2007); to appear in volume 661, June 200
We present the results of a detailed analysis of the properties of dwarf O-type stars in a metal-poor environment. High-resolution, high-quality, ultraviolet and optical spectra of six O-type stars in the H II region NGC 346 have been obtained from a spectroscopic survey of O stars in the SMC. Stellar parameters and chemical abundances have been determined using NLTE line-blanketed photospheric models calculated with Tlusty. Additionally, we have modeled the spectra with the NLTE line-blanketed wind code, CMFGEN, to derive wind parameters. Stellar parameters and chemical abundances, and in particular iron abundances, obtained with the two NLTE codes compare quite favorably. This
We show that under certain circumstances the differences between the absorption mean and Planck mean opacities can lead to multiple solutions for an LTE atmospheric structure. Since the absorption and Planck mean opacities are not expected to differ significantly in the usual case of radiative equilibrium, non-irradiated atmospheres, the most interesting situations where the effect may play a role are strongly irradiated stars and planets, and also possibly structures where there is a significant deposition of mechanical energy, such as stellar chromospheres and accretion disks. We have presented an illustrative example of a strongly irradiated giant planet where the bifurcation effect is predicted to occur for a certain range of distances from the star.
We present theoretical atmosphere, spectral, and light-curve models for extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) undergoing strong irradiation for which Spitzer planet/star contrast ratios or light curves have been published (circa 2007 June). These include HD 209458b, HD 189733b, TrES-1, HD 149026b, HD 179949b, and And b. By comparing models with data, we find that a number of EGP atmospheres experience thermal inversions and have stratospheres. This is particularly true for HD 209458b, HD 149026b, and And b. This finding translates into qualitative changes in the planet/star contrast ratios at secondary eclipse and in close-in EGP orbital light curves. Moreover, the presence of atmospheric water in abundance is fully consistent with all the Spitzer data for the measured planets. For planets with stratospheres, water absorption features invert into emission features and mid-infrared fluxes can be enhanced by a factor of 2. In addition, the character of near-infrared planetary spectra can be radically altered. We derive a correlation between the importance of such stratospheres and the stellar flux on the planet, suggesting that close-in EGPs bifurcate into two groups: those with and without stratospheres. From the finding that TrES-1 shows no signs of a stratosphere, while HD 209458b does, we estimate the magnitude of this stellar flux breakpoint. We find that the heat redistribution parameter, P n , for the family of close-in EGPs assumes values from $0.1 to $0.4. This paper provides a broad theoretical context for the future direct characterization of EGPs in tight orbits around their illuminating stars.
We have constructed a comprehensive grid of 1540 metal line-blanketed, NLTE, plane-parallel, hydrostatic model atmospheres for the basic parameters appropriate to early B-type stars. The Bstar2006 grid considers 16 values of effective temperatures, 15 000 K ≤ T eff ≤ 30 000 K with 1 000 K steps, 13 surface gravities, 1.75 ≤ log g ≤ 4.75 with 0.25 dex steps, 6 chemical compositions, and a microturbulent velocity of 2 km s −1 . The lower limit of log g for a given effective temperature is set by an approximate location of the Eddington limit. The selected chemical compositions range from twice to one tenth of the solar metallicity and metal-free. Additional model atmospheres for B supergiants (log g ≤ 3.0) have been calculated with a higher microturbulent velocity (10 km s −1 ) and a surface composition that is enriched in helium and nitrogen, and depleted in carbon. This new grid complements our earlier Ostar2002 grid of O-type stars (Lanz & Hubeny, 2003, ApJS, 146, 417). The paper contains a description of the Bstar2006 grid and some illustrative examples and comparisons. NLTE ionization fractions, bolometric corrections, radiative accelerations, and effective gravities are obtained over the parameter range covered by the grid. By extrapolating radiative accelerations, we have determined an improved estimate of the Eddington limit in absence of rotation between 55 000 and 15 000 K. The complete Bstar2006 grid is available at the Tlusty website.
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