Background: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the first-line surgical intervention for cases of severe carotid stenoses. Unfortunately, the restenosis rate is high after CEA. This study aims to demonstrate the predictive role of carotid plaque features and inflammatory biomarkers (monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic inflammatory index (SII), Systemic Inflammation Response Index (SIRI), and Aggregate Index of Systemic Inflammation (AISI)) in carotid restenosis and mortality at 12 months following CEA. Methods: The present study was designed as an observational, analytical, retrospective cohort study and included all patients over 18 years of age with a minimum of 70% carotid stenosis and surgical indications for CEA admitted to the Vascular Surgery Clinic, Emergency County Hospital of Targu Mures, Romania between 2018 and 2021. Results: According to our results, the high pre-operative values of inflammatory biomarkers—MLR (OR: 10.37 and OR: 6.11; p < 0.001), NLR (OR: 34.22 and OR: 37.62; p < 0.001), PLR (OR: 12.02 and OR: 16.06; p < 0.001), SII (OR: 18.11 and OR: 31.70; p < 0.001), SIRI (OR: 16.64 and OR: 9.89; p < 0.001), and AISI (OR: 16.80 and OR: 8.24; p < 0.001)—are strong independent factors predicting the risk of 12-month restenosis and mortality following CEA. Moreover, unstable plaque (OR: 2.83, p < 0.001 and OR: 2.40, p = 0.04) and MI (OR: 3.16, p < 0.001 and OR: 2.83, p = 0.005) were independent predictors of all outcomes. Furthermore, AH (OR: 2.30; p = 0.006), AF (OR: 1.74; p = 0.02), tobacco (OR: 2.25; p < 0.001), obesity (OR: 1.90; p = 0.02), and thrombotic plaques (OR: 2.77; p < 0.001) were all independent predictors of restenosis, but not for mortality in all patients. In contrast, antiplatelet (OR: 0.46; p = 0.004), statin (OR: 0.59; p = 0.04), and ezetimibe (OR:0.45; p = 0.03) therapy were protective factors against restenosis, but not for mortality. Conclusions: Our data revealed that higher preoperative inflammatory biomarker values highly predict 12-month restenosis and mortality following CEA. Furthermore, age above 70, unstable plaque, cardiovascular disease, and dyslipidemia were risk factors for all outcomes. Additionally, AH, AF, smoking, and obesity were all independent predictors of restenosis but not of mortality in all patients. Antiplatelet and statin medication, on the other hand, were protective against restenosis but not against mortality.
Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has globally affected health systems and services. Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common malignancies around the world. This study aimed to analyze the differences in the benign and malignant histopathological diagnoses performed on radical excision skin tumors and skin biopsies in the dermatopathology ward in Mures Clinical County Hospital, Targu Mures, Romania, 1 year prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic, to emphasize the changes in the diagnostic process as per the new regulations. Materials and Methods: A total of 1168 histopathological diagnoses were included in the study—302 from the COVID-19 period and 866 from the non-COVID-19 period—considering the number, type, and frequency of the histopathological diagnoses as variables to be analyzed. Results: In the COVID-19 period, out of the 55 NMSC and melanoma histopathological diagnoses, 50.9% (n = 28) were BCCs, 20% (n = 11) were SCCs, 10.9% (n = 6) were basosquamous cell carcinomas, and 18.18% (n = 10) were melanoma cases. Regarding the non-COVID-19 period, out of the 173 NMSC and melanoma histopathological diagnoses, 46.82% (n = 81) were BCCs, 22.54% (n = 39) were SCCs, 7.51% (n = 13) were basosquamous cell carcinomas, and 23.12% (n = 40) were melanoma cases. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, a decrease in histopathological diagnoses at the dermatopathology ward in our hospital was observed, for both benign and malignant pathologies, especially for NMSCs and melanomas, compared to the same period 1 year prior to the pandemic.
Background: There are a multitude of factors that influence smoking status, and minors from the social protection system are a vulnerable category in terms of smoking. Methods: The objective of this research was to assess the degree of smoking dependence and to identify potential predictors of smoking status in foster care teenagers. Smoker status was confirmed by dosing CO in the exhaled air, and the degree of dependence was assessed using the Fagerström score. We performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: From the 275 foster care minors, 22.5% were current smokers. Exhaled CO was not influenced by general demographic factors, was associated with the frequency of smoking, and was positively correlated with the estimated number of cigarettes consumed daily and with the Fagerström score. The calculated probability of being a smoker was less than 20.4% in 75% of nonsmokers, whereas 75% of actual smokers had a predicted probability higher than 30.3%. Conclusions: In addition to age, gender, social environment, previous exposure to secondhand smoking, and residential type of foster care system, the expressed opinions regarding the health effects of tobacco use were associated with smoking in foster care teenagers.
Melanoma is currently known as one of the most aggressive malignant tumors. The prognostic factors and particularities of this neoplasm are a persistent hot topic in the medical field. This review has multiple purposes. First, we aim to summarize the known data regarding the histological and immunohistochemical appearance of this versatile tumor and to look further into the analysis of several widely used prognostic markers, such as B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase BRAF. The second purpose is to analyze the data on the new prognostic markers, V-domain Immunoglobulin Suppressor of T cell Activation (VISTA) and Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). VISTA is a novel target that is considered to be highly important in determining the invasive potential and treatment response of a melanoma, and there are currently only a limited number of studies describing its role. PD-L1 is a marker with whose importance has been revealed in multiple types of malignancies, but its exact role regarding melanoma remains under investigation. In conclusion, the gathered data highlights the importance of correlations between these markers toward providing patients with a better outcome.
Background and Objectives: Basal carcinoma of the skin (BCC) is part of the nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) family and is the most frequently occurring type of skin cancer in humans. A combination of clinical and histopathological approaches is necessary in order to establish the best treatment regime for patients who have been diagnosed with this type of cancer. The objective of the present study was to establish the statistical value of prediction for certain sociodemographic characteristics (age category and environment of origin) and histopathological parameters of the subjects that could be related to the incidence of diagnosis with certain histopathological subtypes of BCC. Materials and Methods: In order to verify the veracity of the established research hypotheses, we conducted a retrospective study based on the histopathological reports of 216 patients who were treated at the Pathology Department of Mureș Clinical County Hospital. Results: Cystic BCC is higher in patients who are older than 71 years of age, and the superficial multicentric and keratotic subtypes are more frequently diagnosed in urban areas. Patients who have been diagnosed with the superficial multicentric BCC subtype are not usually very old in contrast to the patients who tend to be diagnosed with the cystic BCC subtype. The nodular BCC subtype is positively associated with ulceration (p = 0.004); the superficial multicentric BCC subtype is positively associated with intra- and peritumoral inflammatory infiltrate (p = 0.022, p = 0.034) and negatively associated with ulceration (r = −0.218, p = 0.001). The infiltrative BCC subtype is positively associated with ulceration (p = 0.021), and the keratotic BCC subtype is positively associated with peritumoral inflammatory infiltrate (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Depending on each patient’s epidemiological and sociodemographic data, a pattern can be established regarding the appropriate clinical and treatment approaches for that patient, which can be supported based on the implications of the histopathological diagnostic. This can lead to an improvement in the patient’s quality of life and increased satisfaction with the provided medical services.
Introduction: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most frequently occurring types of cancer in humans. Scientometric research is an innovative method for analyzing the research trends in various domains, with great implications in the field of medicine. Materials and Methods: We searched the Web of Science database with the following established query terms: “Squamous cell carcinoma”, “skin”, and “immunohistochemistry”. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 76 articles were selected. The present study aims to analyze, based on the frequency of use of keywords with scientometric algorithms and map-based distributions, the trends of the research concerning cSCCs in 2017–2022. Results: A graphical representation based on 11 scientometric maps presented the division of the keywords into seven clusters, from which seven categories of research interest were defined. The clusters represent a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of cSCCs, cancer diagnostics, patient outcomes, histopathological importance, management of cSCCs, role of progression, and adequate treatment of and importance of immunohistochemistry for cSCCs. The distribution of the citations shows the importance of the available research on cSCCs by analyzing the first five most-cited articles included in our study in direct concordance with the seven defined clusters. Conclusion: The scientometric research method reveals the interest of research in the multidisciplinary approach used to obtain the best outcomes for the patient, including a targeted investigation, as well as diagnostic and treatment options. The trends in the research reveal that histopathological diagnostics and immunohistochemistry, combined with molecular techniques, are the most important tools used to establish a personalized diagnosis, thus increasing the quality of life and life expectancy for patients with cSCCs.
Infecția cu SARS-Cov-2, denumită Covid-19, cu evoluție declarată pandemică de OMS în martie 2020, determină variate forme de boală, gravitatea crescând odată cu vârsta și cu prezența de comorbidități. Pacientul vârstnic cu Covid-19 necesită frecvent internare în spital pentru tratament și supraveghere medicală. Lucrarea de față prezintă un studiu retrospectiv efectuat pe cazuistica Spitalului Clinic de Boli Infecțioase din Brașov în perioada 01.03.2021-31.03.2021, axat pe evidențierea unor aspecte etice legate de particularitățile îngrijire medicală ale pacienților cu vârsta peste 65 ani. În perioada menționată proporția bolnavilor vârstnici a fost de 51,48%% din totalul internărilor, mare parte dintre aceștia prezentând forme medio-severe și severe de boală și având asociate multiple comorbidități. În acest context asistența medicală acordată pacientului vârstnic spitalizat cu Covid-19 trebuie sa fie nediscriminatorie și să cuprindă aplicarea echitabilă a tratamentul specific, intervențiile în caz de urgență medicală și accesul la servicii de specialitate pentru bolile cronice asociate în cazul decompensării acestora
Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are very common as a method of birth control. By adding progesterone (levonorgestrel), a decrease in the risk of complications has been documented, including the risk of perforation. Even though only a few complications have been described, adjacent organs may be involved in the case of migration—a life-threatening situation. A 45-year-old G4P2 woman was seen in our clinic for LNg-IUD removal, according to the medical instructions. Her main complaints were abdominal discomfort, low back pain, and recurrent menorrhagia. A “lost” IUD was initially suspected; the patient confirmed the detection and removal of the control strings, and a subsequent discussion related to delayed transmural migration of the IUD being followed. The ultrasonography revealed the migration of the IUD to the uterine cervix and size-decreased uterine fibroids, confirming the effectiveness of the LNg-IUD. The MRI and ultrasonography being useless, a subsequent X-ray and CT scan were requested, both confirming a myometrium-positioned IUD, adjacent to the serosa and lumbosacral plexus. Even though the IUD is considered a safe device with reversible effect, it can be associated with severe morbidity, with an ultrasound follow-up being required. For more precise detection of the IUD, we strongly recommend an X-ray or CT scan examination, followed by safe removal.
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